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Bone marrow fat is suppressed by Vitamin D – Nov 2019

It appears that
1) Bone Marrow is the 3rd largest fat store in the body
2) Vitamin D decreases Bone Marrow Fat
3)Bone Marrow Fat is associated with Osteoporosis

The Regulation of Marrow Fat by Vitamin D - Nov 2019

The Regulation of Marrow Fat by Vitamin D: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications - Nov 2019
Current Osteoporosis Reports, pp 1–11 DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00546-6
Hanel Sadie-Van Gijsen

Purpose of Review
To review the available literature regarding a possible relationship between vitamin D and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), and to identify future avenues of research that warrant attention.

Recent Findings
Results from in vivo animal and human studies all support the hypothesis that vitamin D can suppress BMAT expansion. This is achieved by antagonizing adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells, through inhibition of PPARγ2 activity and stimulation of pro-osteogenic Wnt signalling. However, our understanding of the functions of BMAT is still evolving, and studies on the role of vitamin D in modulating BMAT function are lacking. In addition, many diseases and chronic conditions are associated with low vitamin D status and low bone mineral density (BMD), but BMAT expansion has not been studied in these patient populations.

Summary: Vitamin D suppresses BMAT expansion, but its role in modulating BMAT function is poorly understood.

Bone Marrow Fat and production of blood cells (Hematopoiesis) - 2018

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018; 9: 694. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00694
Huifang Wang,† Yamei Leng,† and Yuping Gong*

Bone marrow fat cells comprise the largest population of cells in the bone marrow cavity, a characteristic that has attracted the attention of scholars from different disciplines. The perception that bone marrow adipocytes are “inert space fillers” has been broken, and currently, bone marrow fat is unanimously considered to be the third largest fat depot, after subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Bone marrow fat (BMF) acts as a metabolically active organ and plays an active role in energy storage, endocrine function, bone metabolism, and the bone metastasis of tumors. Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs), as a component of the bone marrow microenvironment, influence hematopoiesis through direct contact with cells and the secretion of adipocyte-derived factors. They also influence the progression of hematologic diseases such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and aplastic anemia, and may be a novel target when exploring treatments for related diseases in the future. Based on currently available data, this review describes the role of BMF in hematopoiesis as well as in the development of hematologic diseases.
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Hematopoiesis in Wikipedia__

Location of Blood cell production changes with age


Bone marrow fat - July 2014

Joint Bone Spine, Volume 81, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages 313-319, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2014.02.013

Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives.

Good, Bad, or Ugly: the Biological Roles of Bone Marrow Fat - Feb 2018

Current Osteoporosis Reports, April 2018, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 130–137
Lakshman SinghSonia TyagiDamian MyersGustavo Duque Email author

Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism.
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