Relationships between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Nocturnal Enuresis in Five- to Seven-Year-Old Children - 2014
PLoS One. 2014 Jun 9;9(6):e99316. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099316. eCollection 2014.
Li L1, Zhou H2, Yang X1, Zhao L1, Yu X1.
Vitamin D has been recognized to contribute to various physiological processes. However, no study has investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in children with nocturnal enuresis (NE) in the English literature.
In the present study, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in five- to seven-year-old children with NE and compared with those in non-enuretic children to investigate whether there was any relationship between 25(OH)D and NE as the first time in the literature.
Two hundred forty-seven five- to seven-year-old children were recruited from Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, and the structured questionnaire was administered to the parents of all children. Low 25(OH)D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 20 ng/ml.
The prevalence of NE was 7.3% in the group of children with 25(OH)D concentrations that exceeded 20 ng/ml; this prevalence was much lower than the 17.5% observed in the group of children with 25(OH)D concentrations below 20 ng/ml (p<0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, serum 25(OH)D (≥20 ng/ml) was significantly associated with NE and represented a protective factor against NE (OR = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.092, 1.0, P<0.05). A nonlinear relationship between 25(OH)D and NE was observed. The prevalence of NE decreased with increasing 25(OH)D concentrations above 19 ng/ml. Additionally, children exhibiting higher frequencies of bedwetting had lower 25(OH)D concentrations [5-7 times/week: 18.3±4.8; 2-4 times/week: 20.9±4.1; 0-1 times/week: 23.6±6.4 (ng/ml), P<0.05)].
CONCLUSIONS: Low 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk of NE in children aged five to seven years.
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Effect of vitamin D and omega-3 on nocturnal enuresis of 7-15-year-old children.
J Pediatr Urol. 2018 Jun;14(3):257.e1-257.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.01.007. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
Rahmani E1, Eftekhari MH2, Fallahzadeh MH3, Fararouei M4, Massoumi SJ1.
1 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. h_eftekhari at yahoo.com.
3 Nemazi Hospital, Nephrology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
4 HIV/AIDS Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Nocturnal enuresis is known to be a common urinary bladder complication in children. Recent studies have associated vitamin D and omega-3 insufficiency with nocturnal enuresis.
This was a 2-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to measure the effects of vitamin D, omega-3 supplements, and their combination on nocturnal enuresis among 7-15-year-old children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Participants (180 children with nocturnal enuresis) were selected from children referred to the Pediatric ward of Imam Reza Clinic in Shiraz, Iran. Demographic information and anthropometric measures were taken. Fasting blood and urine samples were also collected, and serum vitamin D and urine prostaglandin E2 were measured before and after intervention. Enuretic children were randomly assigned to four groups: Group A, vitamin D (1000 IU/day); Group B, omega-3 (1000 mg/day); Group C, both omega-3 (1000 mg/day) and vitamin D (1000 IU/day); and Group D, placebo.
The results suggested that the study groups were not significantly different regarding demographic and anthropometric measures at baseline. Comparison of different groups revealed that 44.4% of participants in Group A, 28.2% of Group B and 45% of Group C were cured from enuresis (P = 0.03). Serum 25(OH) D was significantly increased in Group A, but urine prostaglandin E2 was not significantly decreased in response to supplementation. Although supplementation with both Group A and Group B were found to be effective, the combined intervention did not increase the effect of each intervention solely.
The results showed that supplementation with vitamin D and omega-3 could reduce the number of wet nights among 7-15-year-old children with nocturnal enuresis.
- Search VitaminDWiki for "Nocturnal Enuresis" OR bedwetting 9 items as of Aug 2018
- Recommend 100 IU of vitamin D per kg of infant - Poland July 2011 has the following chart
- Clearly more than 1,000 IU is needed for ages 7-15
- And some people need 200 IU/kg = twice as much