doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.06.013 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Norma C. Grandia, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Lutz P. Breitlinga and Hermann BrennerCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author
a Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany
Objective Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) has recently been linked to cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes evidence from prospective studies evaluating the prognostic value of 25-OH-D for cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality.
Method A systematic literature search in EMBASE and Pubmed-Medline databases was performed until November 2009. Prospective studies published in English were selected reporting estimates for the association of 25-OH-D with primary or secondary cardiovascular event incidence or mortality in the general population or subjects with prevalent cardiovascular disease. Pooled risk estimators were derived by meta-analysis using a random effects model approach.
Results Four incidence and five independent mortality studies were included. Two incidence and three mortality studies reported a two- to five-fold risk increase for both outcomes in subjects with lower 25-OH-D, while the others did not detect a significant association. Meta-analysis supported the existence of an inverse association.
Conclusion Data from prospective investigations suggest an inverse association between 25-OH-D and cardiovascular risk. However, given the heterogeneity and small number of longitudinal studies, more research is needed to corroborate a potential prognostic value of 25-OH-D for cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality.