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11 ng less vitamin D increases hypertension probability by 14 percent – Nov 2010

Lifestyles and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Core 2. Epidemiology and Prevention of CV Disease: Physiology, Pharmacology and Lifestyle
Abstract 21058: Association Between Serum Vitamin D and Prehypertension
Circulation. 2010;122:A21058
Volume 122, Issue 21 Supplement; November 23, 2010 / Abstracts From Scientific Sessions 2010
Charumathi Sabanayagam; Anoop Shankar
West virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV

Background: Low serum levels of vitamin D increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It has also been suggested that serum vitamin D levels are associated with blood pressure. Prehypertension is a preclinical stage where prevention efforts have been shown to be effective in delaying or preventing the onset of hypertension.

Hypothesis: We examined the hypothesis that low serum levels of vitamin D are independently associated with prehypertension.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 9,215 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age who were free of hypertension (53.5% women). Serum vitamin D levels were analysed as quartiles (?17.7 ng/mL, 17.8-24.5 ng/mL, 24.6-32.4 ng/mL, >32.4 ng/mL) and as a continuous variable (per standard deviation SD decrease). The main outcome of interest was prehypertension (n=3,712), defined as systolic blood pressure 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 89-89 mm Hg.

Results: We found lower serum vitamin D levels to be associated with prehypertension independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, total-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, C-reactive protein, and glomerular filtration rate.
Compared to the highest quartile of serum vitamin D (referent), the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval CI) of prehypertension associated with the lowest quartile was 1.48 (1.16-1.90); p-trend<0.0001. In continuous analysis, each SD decrease in vitamin D (11.4 ng/mL) was associated with an OR (95% CI) of 1.14 (1.05-1.24) of prehypertension. This association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, and race-ethnicity.

Conclusion: There was a positive association between low serum vitamin D levels and prehypertension in a representative sample of US adults. Future randomized intervention trials should examine if vitamin D supplementation at this stage can prevent or delay the onset of hypertension.
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