Vitamin D Insufficiency in Korea--A Greater Threat to Younger Generation:
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec 29.
Choi HS, Oh HJ, Choi H, Choi WH, Kim JG, Kim KM, Kim KJ, Rhee Y, Lim SK. lsk at yuhs.ac
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine (H.S.C.), Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-shi, Gyeonggi-do 410-773, Korea; Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine (H.J.O.), Kwandong University, Gangneung 210-701, Korea; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine (H.C.), Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul 139-707, Korea; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine (W.H.C.), Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul 133-791, Korea; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine (J.G.K.), Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea; and Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine (K.M.K., K.J.K., Y.R., S.-K.L.), Institute of Endocrine Research (H.S.C., K.M.K., K.J.K., Y.R., S.-K.L.), and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences (S.-K.L.), Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Korea.
Context: Vitamin D status in the Korean population has not been adequately determined. Objective: To investigate the vitamin D status and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the Korean population, and also identify the predictors for vitamin D insufficiency in Korea.
Design and Setting: The Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV) in the Korean population conducted in 2008. Participants: 3,047 males and 3,878 females aged 10 years and older selected in all the 16 administrative districts of South Korea. Main Outcome Measures: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D levels and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency defined as serum 25(OH)D level of less than 20 ng/ml.
Results: Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 47.3% of males and 64.5% of females, whereas only 13.2% of male and 6.7% of female population had a serum 25(OH)D level of greater than 30 ng/ml. Vitamin D insufficiency was most prevalent in the age of 20-29, with a rate of 65.0% in males and 79.9% in females, and least prevalent in the age of 60-69 in males and 50-59 in females. Those who work usually indoors were more predisposed to vitamin D insufficiency. In the adult population, predictors for vitamin D insufficiency included young age groups, spring and winter seasons, living in an urban area, and indoor occupations.
Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency is very common, and it is now a greater threat to the younger generation in Korea. Current recommendations for vitamin D intakes for Koreans are inadequate, especially for the youth. PMID: 2119094
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