Particulate Air Pollution Exposure and Plasma Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, jc.2018-02713, https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02713
Yan Zhao Lei Wang Hongjiao Liu Zhijuan Cao Xiujuan Su Jing Cai Jing Hua
Air Pollution reduces Vitamin D has the following reasons
- Pollution reduces the amount of time that people are outdoors
- Pollution attenuates the amount of UVB getting to the skin (by only a few percent)
- Pollution is often associated with hot temperatures, which is another reason to stay indoors
- The body fights the resulting Irritation/Inflammation of organs with vitamin D
- Vitamin D supplementation helps the body fight the effects of pollution
- Inhaled vitamin D might turn out to be especially good form as it goes directly to the lungs
- Context: No studies have assessed the associations between air pollution exposure and vitamin D status in pregnant women.
- Objective: To examine the association between particulate air pollution exposure and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] levels in pregnant women.
Design: A longitudinal cohort study.
Participants: A total of 3285 pregnant women were recruited at a Maternal and Child Health Hospital.
Main Outcome Measures: Serum 25(OH)D levels.
Results: We observed trimester-specific associations between particulate air pollution exposure and circulating 25(OH)D levels. The associations were most pronounced for the periods of third trimester and the entire pregnancy. A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 exposure during the entire pregnancy was associated with a 4.62% (95% CI, -6.31% to -2.93%) and 5.06% (95% CI, -6.50% to -3.62%) decrease in 25(OH)D levels, respectively. Particulate air pollution exposure was also associated with elevated odds of maternal vitamin D deficiency. A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 exposure during the entire pregnancy was associated with a 45% (OR=1.45, 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.63) and 48% (OR=1.48, 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.64) increase in the odds of maternal vitamin D deficiency. Mediation analysis estimated that decreased solar UVB radiation mediated 69.5% and 66.4% of the inverse association between PM2.5 and PM10 exposure and circulating 25(OH)D levels.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to particulate air pollution may play an independent role in maternal vitamin D deficiency. The role of air pollution should be incorporated into future guidelines for the prevention of maternal vitamin D deficiency.