Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on tobacco craving in cigarette smokers: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.
J Psychopharmacol. 2014 Aug;28(8):804-9. doi: 10.1177/0269881114536477. Epub 2014 Rabinovitz S1.
Note by the founder of VitaminDWiki
- This study did not measure how much Omega-3 Increase5
- Suspect that the those smokers getting a Omega-3 index > 6 would have been found to have experienced even less desire to smoke
- An Omega-3 index test has become very low cost since this trial
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Cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress with subsequent polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) peroxidation. Low concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs can affect neurotransmission, resulting in hypofunctioning of the mesocortical systems associated with reward and dependence mechanisms and thus may increase cigarette craving, hampering smoking cessation efforts. PUFA deficiency, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), has also been linked to reduced psychological health and ability to cope with stress. Although stress is well linked to smoking urges and behavior, no research to date has examined the effects of PUFA supplementation on tobacco craving. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study, performed in regular cigarette smokers (n=48), administration of 2710 mg EPA/day and 2040 mg DHA/day for one month was accompanied by a significant decrease in reported daily smoking and in tobacco craving following cigarette cue exposure. Craving did not return to baseline values in the month that followed treatment discontinuation. This is the first study demonstrating that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces tobacco craving in regular smokers, compared to placebo treatment. Thus, omega-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in managing tobacco consumption. Further studies are needed on larger samples to explore the possible therapeutic implications for heavy cigarette smokers.
The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study
Lipids Health Dis. 2016; 15: 61. online 2016 Mar 22. doi: 10.1186/s12944-016-0220-9
PMCID: PMC4804563. PMID: 27004534
Nóris Scaglia, José Chatkin, Kenneth R. Chapman, Ivone Ferreira, Mario Wagner, Peter Selby, Johane Allard, and Noe Zamel
Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of nicotine dependence.
Using a cross-sectional study, we included 50 current smokers (group I) and 50 lifetime non-smokers (group II), aged 18–75 years. We screened them at the Toronto Western Hospital and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, Canada). The subjects completed a questionnaire with demographic data, lifestyle habits and details of food intake. The PUFAs measured in the RBC membranes were alphalinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In order to perform an adjusted comparison between smokers and non-smokers we used the ANCOVA model.
After adjusting for confounding factors,
- non-smokers showed higher consumption of PUFAs, especially salmon: 800 g (0–7.740) than smokers 430 g (0–2.150) P < 0.001.
- They also had higher DHA levels compared to smokers: 4.81 % (2.79–10.21) and 4.13 % (2.33–7.73), respectively, p < 0.05.
The other PUFAs showed no significant differences between the two groups.
Smokers ate less fish rich in omega3 fatty acids than non-smokers, showing and inverse and significant relationship between omega3 intake and smoking. Smokers had lower levels of DHA and EPA, a not previously reported finding. Considering that PUFAs probably interfere in smoking habit, the increase in omega-3 consumption may become a perspective in prevention or treatment of smoking. However, this inference must be evaluated through specific studies.
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