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Overview Muscles and Vitamin D


To build muscles you need more than just Vitamin D
   also need Exercise, Protein, Magnesium, Omega-3, and activated Vitamin D Receptors
     In fact, Vitamin D monotherapy sometimes DECREASES muscles.

Notes on Vitamin D Receptor:
Vitamin D Receptors get vitamin D in the blood to the muscle cells
Approximately 20% of people have poor vitamin D receptors
As people age, their Vitamin D receptors also become less activated
There are 12+ low-cost activators for the Vitamin D Receptor
122+ VitaminDWiki pages have MUSCLE in the title
Dr. Greger on Vitamin D and Muscles - May 2020
Vitamin D Supplements for Increasing Aging Muscle Strength

  • "We have known for more than 400 years that muscle weakness is a common presenting symptom of vitamin D deficiency"
  • conservative "U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, the official prevention guideline setting body, and the American Geriatric Society to “recommend vitamin D supplementation for persons who are at high risk of falls.”
  • AGS recommends 4,000 IU to capture 92 percent of the population"


The Role of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle Repair and Regeneration in Animal Models and Humans: A Systematic Review - Oct 2023

Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204377
by Miguel Agoncillo 1,†,Josephine Yu 1,†ORCID andJenny E. Gunton 1,2,3,*ORCID
Portion of the table of contents
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Vitamin D deficiency, prevalent worldwide, is linked to muscle weakness, sarcopenia, and falls. Muscle regeneration is a vital process that allows for skeletal muscle tissue maintenance and repair after injury. PubMed and Web of Science were used to search for studies published prior to May 2023. We assessed eligible studies that discussed the relationship between vitamin D, muscle regeneration in this review. Overall, the literature reports strong associations between vitamin D and skeletal myocyte size, and muscle regeneration. In vitro studies in skeletal muscle cells derived from mice and humans showed vitamin D played a role in regulating myoblast growth, size, and gene expression. Animal studies, primarily in mice, demonstrate vitamin D’s positive effects on skeletal muscle function, such as improved grip strength and endurance. These studies encompass vitamin D diet research, genetically modified models, and disease-related mouse models. Relatively few studies looked at muscle function after injury, but these also support a role for vitamin D in muscle recovery.
The human studies have also reported that vitamin D deficiency decreases muscle grip strength and gait speed, especially in the elderly population.
Finally, human studies reported the benefits of vitamin D supplementation and achieving optimal serum vitamin D levels in muscle recovery after eccentric exercise and surgery.
However, there were no benefits in rotator cuff injury studies, suggesting that repair mechanisms for muscle/ligament tears may be less reliant on vitamin D.
In summary, vitamin D plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle function, structural integrity, and regeneration, potentially offering therapeutic benefits to patients with musculoskeletal diseases and in post-operative recovery.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Muscle Health and Vitamin D - Meta-analysis Sept 2021 (not help much - ignored dose size)

Vitamin D and Muscle Health: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis of Randomized Placebo‐Controlled Trials
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol 36, Issue 9, Pages 1651–1660, https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4412
Lise Sofie Bislev, Diana Grove‐Laugesen, Lars Rejnmark

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on muscle health. For this systematic review and trial‐level meta‐analysis of placebo‐controlled trials, a systematic search of randomized controlled trials published until October 2020 was performed in Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar. We included studies in humans (except athletes) on supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 versus placebo, regardless of administration form (daily, bolus, and duration) with or without calcium co‐supplementation. The predefined endpoints were physical performance reported as timed up and go test (TUG; seconds), chair rising test (seconds), 6‐minute walking distance (m), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; points). Furthermore, endpoints were maximum muscle strength (Newton) measured at handgrip, elbow flexion, elbow extension, knee flexion, and knee extension, as well as muscle (lean tissue) mass (kg). Falls were not included in the analysis. Cochrane Review Manager (version 5.4.1.) calculating mean difference (MD) using a random effect model was used.
In total, 54 randomized controlled trials involving 8747 individuals were included. Vitamin D versus placebo was associated with a

  • significantly longer time spent performing the TUG (MD 0.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.26] seconds, N = 19 studies, I2 = 0%, n = 5223 participants) and a
  • significant lower maximum knee flexion strength (MD –3.3 [−6.63 to −0.03] Newton, N = 12 studies, I2 = 0%, n = 765 participants).

Total score in the SPPB showed a tendency toward worsening in response to vitamin D compared with placebo (MD −0.18 [−0.37 to 0.01] points, N = 8 studies, I2 = 0%, n = 856 participants).
Other measures of muscle health did not show between‐group differences. In subgroup analyses, including studies with low vitamin D levels, effects of vitamin D supplementation did not differ from placebo.
Available evidence does not support a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle health. Vitamin D may have adverse effects on muscle health, which needs to be considered when recommending vitamin D supplementation. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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Vitamin D Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Mitochondrial Health – April 2021

Front. Physiol., 13 April 2021 Vol 12 - 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.660498

  • 1 Department of Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States
  • 2 Center for Muscle Biology, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States


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Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the maintenance of skeletal muscle and bone health. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in muscle, as is CYP27B1, the enzyme that hydroxylates 25(OH)D to its active form, 1,25(OH)D. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D may play an important role during muscle damage and regeneration. Muscle damage is characterized by compromised muscle fiber architecture, disruption of contractile protein integrity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Muscle regeneration is a complex process that involves restoration of mitochondrial function and activation of satellite cells (SC), the resident skeletal muscle stem cells. VDR expression is strongly upregulated following injury, particularly in central nuclei and SCs in animal models of muscle injury. Mechanistic studies provide some insight into the possible role of vitamin D activity in injured muscle. In vitro and in vivo rodent studies show that vitamin D mitigates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, augments antioxidant capacity, and prevents oxidative stress, a common antagonist in muscle damage. Additionally, VDR knockdown results in decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and ATP production, suggesting that vitamin D is crucial for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity; an important driver of muscle regeneration. Vitamin D regulation of mitochondrial health may also have implications for SC activity and self-renewal capacity, which could further affect muscle regeneration. However, the optimal timing, form and dose of vitamin D, as well as the mechanism by which vitamin D contributes to maintenance and restoration of muscle strength following injury, have not been determined. More research is needed to determine mechanistic action of 1,25(OH)D on mitochondria and SCs, as well as how this action manifests following muscle injury in vivo. Moreover, standardization in vitamin D sufficiency cut-points, time-course study of the efficacy of vitamin D administration, and comparison of multiple analogs of vitamin D are necessary to elucidate the potential of vitamin D as a significant contributor to muscle regeneration following injury. Here we will review the contribution of vitamin D to skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.
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Vitamin D helps muscles in many ways – Sept 2021

Muscle Regeneration and Function in Sports: A Focus on Vitamin D
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57101015
by Giovanni Iolascon 1,Antimo Moretti 1,*OrcID,Marco Paoletta 1OrcID,Sara Liguori 1 andOmbretta Di Munno 2

  • 1 Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Dentistry, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via de Crecchio, 6, 80138 Naples, Italy
  • 2 Rheumatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy

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Muscle is one of the main targets for the biological effects of vitamin D. This hormone modulates several functions of skeletal muscles, from development to tissue repair after injury, through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation seem to significantly affect muscle strength in different populations, including athletes, although optimal serum 25(OH)D3 level for sport performance has not been defined so far.
Additionally, vitamin D deficiency results in myopathy characterized by

  • fast-twitch fiber atrophy,
  • fatty infiltration, and
  • fibrosis.

However, less is known about regenerative effects of vitamin D supplementation after sport-related muscle injuries. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is particularly expressed in the embryonic mesoderm during intrauterine life and in satellite cells at all stages of life for recovery of the skeletal muscle after injury. Vitamin D supplementation enhances muscle differentiation, growth, and regeneration by increasing the expression of myogenic factors in satellite cells. The objective of this narrative review is to describe the role of vitamin D in sport-related muscle injury and tissue regeneration.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


138+ VitaminDWiki pages with MUSCLE, etc in the title

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 138
Title Modified
Muscle strength improved with Calfidediol (a form of vitamin D) - meta-analysis May 2022 29 Feb, 2024
Muscle Inflammation (idiopathic inflammatory myopathy) 3.2 X more likely if low Vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2024 29 Feb, 2024
Handgrip and Vitamin D - many studies 20 Feb, 2024
Female preemies become women with low hand grip strength - Dec 2023 24 Dec, 2023
Omega-3 helps muscles - many studies 16 Nov, 2023
Fatigue reduced by Vitamin D (Cancer, muscle, MS, age, etc) - many studies 12 Nov, 2023
Skeletal Muscles regenerated with Vitamin D supplementation – review Oct 2023 29 Oct, 2023
Pelvic Organ Prolapse after menopause 5.6 X more likely if low Vitamin D (weak muscles) – Oct 2023 02 Oct, 2023
Muscles improved in women with 50,000 IU vitamin D weekly (8 weeks) plus daily Magnesium – RCT Sept 2020 16 Sep, 2023
Muscle pain in obese women reduced by aerobic exercise plus 50,000 IU Vitamin D - RCT May 2021 27 Aug, 2023
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) is reduced by vitamin D and many other supplements - July 2023 27 Aug, 2023
Vitamin D Receptors in muscles decrease with age in those with Osteoporosis - 2018 20 Aug, 2023
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) fought by Vitamin D, exercise and protein - many studies 11 Jul, 2023
Some excess calories diverted to muscle growth if high level vitamin D (exercising mice) – preprint May 2022 02 Jun, 2023
Muscular Dystrophy probably treated by high-dose Vitamin D plus muscle rehab 23 Mar, 2023
Off topic: back muscle pain quickly treated by TENS - Jan 2023 25 Jan, 2023
More muscle strength 80 years after being born in warm season (no surprise) – Nov 2022 26 Nov, 2022
Grip strength of children not improved by 800 IU Vitamin D daily (not nearly enough) – RCT Feb 2018 31 Oct, 2022
Exercise-induced muscle damage fought when enough vitamin D used for long enough – review Sept 2022 24 Sep, 2022
Frailty and low muscle mass both associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2013 14 Sep, 2022
Statin muscle problems decreased in 4 out of 5 patients when vitamin D was added – June 2022 30 Jun, 2022
Omega-3 improves elderly muscles – 2 meta-analyses 06 Jun, 2022
Overview Muscles and Vitamin D 20 May, 2022
High-Dose Vitamin D puts surplus calories into muscles instead of fat (mice) – May 2022 20 May, 2022
3X less muscle atrophy after ACL surgery if more than 40 ng of vitamin D – May 2022 14 May, 2022
Better handgrip strength if some good vitamin D genes (or if supplement) – April 2022 09 Apr, 2022
Handgrip strength increased 9 percent in college athletes with 8 weeks of Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2022 18 Mar, 2022
Muscle Strength improved 1.4 to 19 percent by vitamin D3 (not D2) – systematic review June 2016 13 Feb, 2022
Role of Vitamin K in Bones and Muscles - Feb 2022 13 Feb, 2022
Some vitamin D is stored in skeletal muscles – multiple studies 27 Dec, 2021
Severe sarcopenia (loss of muscle) 6 X more likely in women with rheumatoid arthritis having low vitamin D – Oct 2021 16 Oct, 2021
Loss of muscle strength –sarcopenia – one of the suspects is vitamin D – Aug 2012 16 Oct, 2021
Less muscle inflammation after exercise if high level of Vitamin D (50 ng) -July 2021 08 Jul, 2021
Low muscle strength predicts low vitamin D level in elderly – March 2021 06 May, 2021
Adding just a little vitamin D does not help (muscle mass in this case) – meta-analysis Jan 2021 06 Feb, 2021
Low muscle mass at least 2X more likely if low Vitamin D (Korea, all ages) – Dec 2020 04 Jan, 2021
4,000 IU of vitamin D for 1 month does not help (muscles in this case) – RCT Jan 2020 21 Sep, 2020
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) is 1.6X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – July 2020 23 Jul, 2020
Less muscle loss associated with eating more fish (Omega-3, Vitamin D, Magnesium, etc) – Jan 2020 30 Jan, 2020
2X less muscle soreness after exercise if Omega-3 index higher than 4 – RCT 2014 23 Dec, 2019
Muscles not improved by just Vitamin D weekly (also need exercise) – Dec 2019 17 Dec, 2019
Low vitamin D resulted in reduced genes to make muscles (in rats) – Nov 2019 11 Nov, 2019
Active muscles store vitamin D in the winter - Oct 2019 11 Oct, 2019
Omega-3 helps muscles – Aug 2019 24 Aug, 2019
Muscles of senior women not helped by just vitamin D (also need exercise) – Aug 2019 10 Aug, 2019
8 Signs of Low Vitamin D - sweating, bones ache, muscle pain, poor immune, fatigue, slow healing etc. – YouTube Dec 2018 05 Aug, 2019
Vitamin D stored in muscle via Vitamin D Binding Protein – July 2019 30 Jul, 2019
Mechanisms of vitamin D action in skeletal muscle – June 2019 22 Jun, 2019
Grip strength following wrist fracture increased by 50,000 IU Vitamin D monthly – May 2019 09 May, 2019
Vitamin D supplementation increases strength of lower muscles – Meta-analysis April 2019 01 May, 2019
Vitamin D does not help gain muscle mass (when only use small doses) – March 2019 03 Mar, 2019
Muscle loss (sarcopenia) may be both prevented and treated by Omega-3 – Feb 2019 23 Feb, 2019
Calcium supplements go to muscle, not bone, unless have enough Vitamin K – Feb 2019 12 Feb, 2019
Protein aids muscle gain – meta-analysis March 2018 02 Jan, 2019
Vitamin D and muscle – April 2019 07 Dec, 2018
Exercise plus vitamin D increases elderly muscles (Nordic walking in this case) – RCT Sept 2018 14 Sep, 2018
Postmenopausal women need Vitamin D, protein and exercise to prevent loss of muscle and bone – Aug 2018 21 Aug, 2018
Dietary Protein, Muscle and Physical Function in the Very Old – July 2018 17 Aug, 2018
Disability was 1.9 X more likely if weak muscles and low vitamin D two years before – Aug 2018 06 Aug, 2018
Muscle fatigue 4X less likely in rugby players getting Omega-3 and protein – July 2018 14 Jul, 2018
Seniors can restore lost muscle (Sarcopenia) – first restore vitamin D, then exercise – July 2018 13 Jul, 2018
Muscle problems are both treated and avoided by Vitamin D – April 2018 03 Jul, 2018
Seniors getting Vitamin D (but no exercise) for 3 months failed to increase muscle strength – RCT June 2018 03 Jul, 2018
Muscle, etc. problems if consume little vitamin D (mice) – June 2018 27 Jun, 2018
Poor handgrip strength in 5-year-old girls 3X more likely if low vitamin D – May 2018 24 May, 2018
Vitamin D weekly supplementation (Spinal Cord Injury athletes) increased handgrip strength – May 2018 15 May, 2018
Muscle pain (Low Magnesium) plus Low Vitamin D associated with 10X more Cancer, etc (San Francisco) – Aug 2017 13 Apr, 2018
Widespread pain, arthritis pain and muscle pain are associated with low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018 08 Apr, 2018
Fewer Breast Cancer deaths if more muscle (probably due to less fat, more Vitamin D) – April 2018 07 Apr, 2018
Omega-3 helps muscles and reduces inflammation, lipids, and insulin – Nov 2015 03 Mar, 2018
Osteoporosis and low grip strength both associated with low vitamin D – Feb 2018 13 Feb, 2018
Headaches (chronic tension) 3X more likely to have low vitamin D – also muscle weakness and bone tenderness – May 2017 25 Jan, 2018
Weaker hand grip if poor Vitamin D Receptor (15 percent) – Nov 2016 12 Nov, 2017
Seniors gained 0.3 kg of muscle in 6 weeks with 800 IU and Leucine protein – Aug 2017 29 Aug, 2017
Vitamin D improves muscle strength, reduces falling, and reduces frailty – review March 2015 27 Jul, 2017
Muscle strength not increased by Vitamin D - 96 percent were not deficient – RCT April 2017 20 Jul, 2017
Infant muscle development best with 400 IU of vitamin D (not 800) – Sept 2015 13 Jul, 2017
Fast twitch muscles increased by Vitamin D in athletes and seniors (reduce falling) – Oct 2016 08 Jun, 2017
Muscle strength not increased by Vitamin D when 96 percent already had enough – RCT April 2017 30 Apr, 2017
Muscle strength of senior women increased 25 percent with vitamin D, decreased 6 percent with placebo – Oct 2016 08 Mar, 2017
More fast twitch muscles (IIA) are associated with higher levels of Vitamin D – Feb 2017 02 Mar, 2017
Handgrip strength dropped by 20 percent in the last generation (perhaps due to lower vitamin D) - Feb 2017 02 Mar, 2017
Severely burned children recovered muscle capability much faster with daily 1000 IU of vitamin D – RCT March 2017 01 Mar, 2017
Hypothesis: Less severe muscle damage if vitamin D level had been normalized – July 2013 21 Feb, 2017
Large single-dose of Omega-3 reduced expected muscle damage – Feb 2017 21 Feb, 2017
Added 1 lb of muscle to sarcopenia adults in 13 weeks with just 800 IU vitamin D and protein – RCT Jan 2017 31 Jan, 2017
Sarcopenic added 1 lb of muscle in 13 weeks with just 800 IU vitamin D and protein – RCT Jan 2017 31 Jan, 2017
Osteosarcopenic obesity (obese with low bone and muscle mass) twice as likely if low vitamin D – Oct 2016 31 Jan, 2017
More muscle torque associated with higher vitamin D – Jan 2017 05 Jan, 2017
Vitamin D increased muscle strength by 1% to 19% (varied with dose and duration) – review June 2016 22 Nov, 2016
Vitamin D increased muscle strength by 1 to 19 percent – review June 2016 22 Nov, 2016
Vitamin D increasing muscle strength may reduce knee pain – Feb 2016 22 Nov, 2016
Myotonic dystrophy a (rare genetic muscle problem) associated with low vitamin D – Nov 2016 18 Nov, 2016
Myotonic dystrophy (a rare genetic muscle problem) associated with low vitamin D – Nov 2016 18 Nov, 2016
Muscle strength is associated with vitamin D receptor gene variants – March 2016 12 Nov, 2016
Improved muscle function in postmenopausal women with just 1,000 IU of vitamin D daily – RCT May 2015 31 Oct, 2016
Vitamin D supplementation improves muscle strength in healthy adults – meta-analysis of 6 RCT Aug 2014 31 Oct, 2016
Vitamin D improved child muscle mass even without varying dose with weight – RCT Feb 2016 06 May, 2016
Less muscle and insulin resistance for children of vitamin D deficient mothers – Jan 2011 05 May, 2016
Sunshine is a cure for “weak and soft muscles” – 425 BC 22 Apr, 2016
Senior muscles increased somewhat with Omega-3 – RCT July 2015 18 Jan, 2016
Muscle strength of Judo athletes increased 13 percent following single dose of 150,000 IU vitamin D – RCT Nov 2015 05 Nov, 2015
More muscle response when have adequate vitamin D 27 Jul, 2015
Pelvic floor muscle strength is low after giving birth if vitamin D deficient – March 2015 20 Mar, 2015
Weight loss includes muscle loss unless add vitamin D, whey and leucine – RCT Feb 2015 07 Feb, 2015
Elderly lost extra half pound of leg and arm muscle mass if low vitamin D (6 years) – Oct 2014 27 Jan, 2015
Vitamin D and bicarbonate perhaps synergistically reduce muscle loss – June 2013 27 Jan, 2015
Muscle increased 17 percent in vitamin D insufficient elderly getting 4,000 IU for 4 months – RCT Oct 2013 27 Jan, 2015
Low Vitamin D breaks down muscle by interferring with protein - Editorial Nov 2013 27 Jan, 2015
People with old burns improved muscle strength with 2200 IU average vitamin D – RCT Sept 2014 20 Dec, 2014
Vitamin D supplementation help muscles of seniors who are vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis July 2014 18 Jul, 2014
Muscle fatigue reduced with 10,000 IU of vitamin D – March 2013 05 May, 2014
MRI of elderly skeletal muscle lacking vitamin D – April 2014 30 Apr, 2014
Muscle cells differentiate into fat cells if there is low vitamin D in petrie dish – April 2013 30 Apr, 2014
Skeletal muscles helped by vitamin D – Review Feb 2014 08 Feb, 2014
Higher vitamin D during pregnancy associated with stronger hand grip at age 4 – Oct 2013 03 Jan, 2014
Elderly lower limb muscle strength improved with Vitamin D supplementation - Meta-analysis Oct 2013 23 Dec, 2013
Vitamin D improves muscle strength if deficient – meta-analysis - Oct 2010 19 Dec, 2013
Muscle strength not increased by raising vitamin D to only 30 ng – RCT Aug 2012 19 Dec, 2013
Vitamin D provides faster recovery after muscle overuse – April 2013 18 Dec, 2013
Type 2 muscles, not all muscles, get benefit from Vitamin D - Dec 2012 23 Oct, 2013
Evidence that vitamin D is also stored in muscle cells – Sept 2013 26 Sep, 2013
Muscle strength in youth increased with 60,000 IU vitamin D per week and 1 g Calcium – April 2010 10 Aug, 2013
Hypothesis: Low vitamin D is one of the causes of muscle weakness in alcoholics – Dec 2012 31 Jul, 2013
More muscle injuries in NFL players who were low on vitamin D – July 2011 13 Jul, 2013
Muscle inflammation 17X more probable if vitamin D deficient – Feb 2013 13 Jul, 2013
Muscle improved by increasing vitamin D if previously less than 24 ng – June 2013 02 Jul, 2013
Most immigrant women in Sweden had little vitamin D and lots of muscle pain – May 2013 22 May, 2013
Deadly amount of vitamin D speeds up recovery of crushed muscles in rats – Dec 2012 19 Apr, 2013
Relevance of Vitamin D in Bone and Muscle Health of Cancer Patients - Jan 2013 06 Dec, 2012
Vitamin D2 intervention increased elderly muscle strength – Nov 2010 10 Nov, 2012
Higher vitamin D helps regain muscle strength after knee surgery – July 2011 01 Sep, 2011
Meta-analysis of RCT – vitamin D might increase senior muscle function – Sept 2010 14 Sep, 2010
Skeletal Muscle weakness from lack of vitamin D fixed by adding Calcium and phosphorus – Aug 2010 11 Aug, 2010
Vitamin D, Muscle Function, and Exercise Performance in kids – June 2010 09 Jun, 2010
Vitamin D improving muscles may be due to improving phosphate levels – June 2010 03 Jun, 2010
Vit D associated with less muscle fat 11 Apr, 2010
Reduced muscle function in mice lacking Vitamin D Receptors in muscles – June 2019 No value for 'modification_date_major'


Muscles and Seniors in VitaminDWiki

Exercise helps build muscles

Omega-3

Overview Sports and vitamin D

Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:

  1. Faster reaction time
  2. Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
  3. Less sore/tired after a workout
  4. Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
  5. Bones which do break heal much more quickly
  6. Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
  7. Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
  8. Professional indoor athletes are starting to take vitamin D and/or use UV beds
  9. Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
  10. The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
  11. Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
  12. Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
  13. Reduced Concussions
    See also: Sports and Vitamin D category 273 items

The Roles of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle Feb 2013

The Roles of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle: Form, Function, and Metabolism
Endocrine Reviews February 1, 2013 vol. 34 no. 1 33-83
Christian M. Girgis, Roderick J. Clifton-Bligh, Mark W. Hamrick, Michael F. Holick and Jenny E. Gunton
Garvan Institute of Medical Research (C.M.G., J.E.G.) and St. Vincent's Clinical School (J.E.G.), University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia; Faculty of Medicine (C.M.G., R.J.C.-B., J.E.G.), University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia; The Kolling Institute of Medical Research (R.J.C.-B.) and Royal North Shore Hospital (R.J.C.-B.), Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia; Georgia Health Sciences University (M.W.H.), Augusta, Georgia 30912; Boston University Medical Center (M.F.H.), Boston, Massachusetts 02118; and Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes (J.E.G.), Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2145, Australia
Address requests for reprints to: Dr. Christian M. Girgis or Associate Professor Jenny E. Gunton, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. E-mail: c.girgis at garvan.org.au or j.gunton at garvan.org.au.

Beyond its established role in bone and mineral homeostasis, there is emerging evidence that vitamin D exerts a range of effects in skeletal muscle. Reports of profound muscle weakness and changes in the muscle morphology of adults with vitamin D deficiency have long been described. These reports have been supplemented by numerous trials assessing the impact of vitamin D on muscle strength and mass and falls in predominantly elderly and deficient populations. At a basic level, animal models have confirmed that vitamin D deficiency and congenital aberrations in the vitamin D endocrine system may result in muscle weakness. To explain these effects, some molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D impacts on muscle cell differentiation, intracellular calcium handling, and genomic activity have been elucidated. There are also suggestions that vitamin D alters muscle metabolism, specifically its sensitivity to insulin, which is a pertinent feature in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We will review the range of human clinical, animal, and cell studies that address the impact of vitamin D in skeletal muscle, and discuss the controversial issues. This is a vibrant field of research and one that continues to extend the frontiers of knowledge of vitamin D's broad functional repertoire.

I. Introduction
II. Background Physiology

A. The vitamin D pathway
B. Skeletal muscle physiology
C. Calcium and muscle contraction
D. Calcium and exercise-related glucose uptake
E. Calcium and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake

III. Vitamin D and Muscle: Cell Models

A. VDR in muscle
B. Calcium homeostasis
C. Phosphate homeostasis
D. Proliferation and differentiation
E. Muscle contractile proteins
F. Phospholipid composition
G. Bone-muscle cross-talk and vitamin D
H. Cell models and molecular pathways for insulin signaling and diabetes

IV. Vitamin D and Muscle: Studies in Animal Models

A.1 VDRKO mice
B. Other animal models
C. Animal studies on insulin sensitivity and diabetes
D. Summary: vitamin D and muscle function in animal studies

V. VDR Polymorphisms and Muscle Function

A. FokI polymorphisms
B. BsmI polymorphisms
C. VDR polymorphisms and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes

VI. Vitamin D and Muscle: Human Studies

A. Myopathy
B. Myalgia and vitamin D deficiency
C. Fibromyalgia
D. Drug-related myopathy and vitamin D
E. Falls and vitamin D
F. Muscle strength and physical performance
G. Muscle morphology and electromyography (EMG)
H. Insulin sensitivity and glucose handling VII. Conclusions

Conclusions
  • Vitamin D exerts rapid and genomic effects in primary muscle cells and cell lines.
    These effects relate to intracellular calcium handling,differentiation and contractile protein composition.
  • In vivo, it is not clear whether VDR is expressed in adult skeletal muscle.
  • Whole-body VDRKO mice and vitamin D-deficient animals display significant defects in muscle function and development.
  • In humans, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding VDR have been associated with differences in muscle strength.
  • Changes in muscle morphology in humans with severe vitamin D deficiency have been reported since the 1970s.
  • Proximal myopathy and muscle pain in subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency resolve following vitamin D supplementation.
  • Associations between vitamin D deficiency, muscle weakness and falls are confounded by factors including frailty and lower exposure to sunlight.
    Clinical parameters of muscle function are not standardized making data aggregation difficult.
  • Randomized data suggest that vitamin D supplementation may reduce falls in older individuals but not all studies support this conclusion.
  • The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation and vitamin D targets remain hotly contested issues.
Outstanding questions
  • Does the VDR exist in fully differentiated adult muscle and does it have physiological relevance at this site?
    Or rather, as suggested by in vitro studies, is its role predominantly related to the function of immature muscle cells such as in myogenesis?
  • Are changes in muscle function and morphology directly related to vitamin D or indirectly to its effects in calcium and mineral homeostasis?
  • Does skeletal muscle possess the ability to 1-a-hydroxylate 25D at any stage in its development?
  • As suggested by studies on phosphate handling in myocytes, does 25D itself exert direct effects on muscle?
  • Is vitamin D deficiency or its reversal an important consideration among those with other muscle disorders such as congenital dystrophies and acquired immune-related myositis?


56 page PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

Feb 2013



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Small Vitamin D doses given for a few months do not improve muscles - meta-analysis Oct 2023

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Most of the trials were 3 months or shorter
Only one trial lasted 4 months
Full response to Vitamin D takes at least 4 months
At which point muscle growth is possible, provided there is exercise, etc


48,000 IU monthly for a year did not help elderly muscles- June 2019

No effect of monthly supplementation with 12000 IU, 24000 IU or 48000 IU vitamin D3 for one year on muscle function: The vitamin D in older people study.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Jun;190:256-262. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.008. Epub 2018 Dec 21.Ranathunga RMTK1, Hill TR2, Mathers JC2, Francis RM3, Prentice A4, Schoenmakers I5, Aspray TJ6; Vitamin D in Older People Study group.

Vitamin D plays a role in muscle function through genomic and non-genomic processes. The objective of this RCT was to determine the effect of monthly supplemental vitamin D3 onmuscle function in 70+ years old adults. Participants (n = 379) were randomized to receive, 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU or 48,000 IU of vitamin D3 monthly for 12 months. Standardized Hand Grip Strength (GS) and Timed-Up and Go (TUG) were measured before and after vitamin D3 supplementation. Fasting total plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) concentrations were measured by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MSMS) and immunoassay, respectively. Baseline plasma 25OHD concentrations were 41.3 (SD 19.9), 39.5 (SD 20.6), 38.9 (SD 19.7) nmol/L; GS values were 28.5 (SD 13.4), 28.8 (SD 13.0) and 28.1 (SD 12.1) kg and TUG test values were 10.8 (SD 2.5), 11.6 (SD 2.9) and 11.9 (SD 3.6) s for the 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU dose groups, respectively. Baseline plasma 25OHD concentration < 25 nmol/L was associated with lower GS (P = 0.003). Post-interventional plasma 25OHD concentrations increased to 55.9 (SD 15.6), 64.6 (SD15.3) and 79.0 (SD 15.1) nmol/L in the 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU dose groups, respectively and there was a significant dose-related response in post-interventional plasma 25OHD concentration (p<0.0001). Post-interventional GS values were 24.1 (SD 10.1), 26.2 (SD10.6) and 25.7 (SD 9.4) kg and TUG test values were 11.5 (SD 2.6), 12.0 (SD 3.7) and 11.9 (SD 3.2) s for 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU dose groups, respectively. The change (Δ) in GS and TUG from pre to post-intervention was not different between treatment groups before and after the adjustment for confounders, suggesting no effect of the intervention. Plasma 25OHD concentration was not associated with GS and TUG test after supplementation. In conclusion, plasma 25OHD concentration < 25 nmol/L was associated with lower GS at baseline. However, monthly vitamin D3 supplementation with 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU, for 12 months had no effect on muscle function in older adults aged 70+ years. Trial Registration : EudraCT 2011-004890-10 and ISRCTN35648481.
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Sarcopenia: 3.3 X higher risk if low bio-available vitamin D - August 2021

Comparative analysis of the association between various serum vitamin D biomarkers and sarcopenia
J Clin Lab Anal. 2021 Aug 5;e23946. doi: 10.1002/jcla.23946
Jun-Il Yoo 1, Hye Jin Chung 2, Bo Gyu Kim 3, Youn-Kwan Jung 3, Kyung-Wan Baek 1, Myung-Geun Song 1, Min-Chul Cho 4 5

Total Vitamin D - not bio-available
Image
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Background: Vitamin D status is associated with muscle strength and maintenance of muscle fibers. However, which serum vitamin D biomarker better reflects sarcopenia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between various serum vitamin D biomarkers (total 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], bioavailable 25(OH)D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH)2 D], and vitamin D metabolite ratio [VMR]) and sarcopenia.

Methods: The data for 83 hip fracture patients were finally included in the analysis. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Measurements of 24,25(OH)2 D and 25(OH)D were made using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The VMR was calculated by dividing serum 24,25(OH)2 D by serum 25(OH)D and then multiplying by 100. Based on total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin concentrations, bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated using the equations from the other previous studies.

Results: Bioavailable 25(OH)D levels were significantly (p = 0.030) decreased in the sarcopenia group compared with the non-sarcopenia group. Results of ROC analysis for the diagnosis of sarcopenia using serum level of bioavailable of 25(OH)D revealed that the cutoff point for bioavailable 25(OH)D was 1.70 ng/ml (AUC = 0.649, p < 0.001). In the group with a bioavailable 25(OH)D less than 1.70 ng/ml, the incidence of sarcopenia increased by 3.3 times (odds ratio: 3.33, p = 0.013).

Conclusion: We demonstrated that bioavailable 25(OH)D was associated with sarcopenia among the various serum vitamin D biomarkers. Bioavailable vitamin D might be helpful for assessing the risk of sarcopenia.


Some reduced muscle function associated with many Vitamin D genes - Review Sept 2021

Association between Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Pathway-Related Genes, Vitamin D Status, Muscle Mass and Function: A Systematic Review
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35+ VitaminDWiki pages with STRENGTH (but not bone/evidence/sarcopenia) in title

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 35
Title Modified
Muscle strength improved with Calfidediol (a form of vitamin D) - meta-analysis May 2022 29 Feb, 2024
Female preemies become women with low hand grip strength - Dec 2023 24 Dec, 2023
More muscle strength 80 years after being born in warm season (no surprise) – Nov 2022 26 Nov, 2022
Grip strength of children not improved by 800 IU Vitamin D daily (not nearly enough) – RCT Feb 2018 31 Oct, 2022
Age-related loss of strength (Dynapenia) 1.7X more likely if low Vitamin D – Sept 2022 16 Sep, 2022
Better handgrip strength if some good vitamin D genes (or if supplement) – April 2022 09 Apr, 2022
Handgrip strength increased 9 percent in college athletes with 8 weeks of Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2022 18 Mar, 2022
Muscle Strength improved 1.4 to 19 percent by vitamin D3 (not D2) – systematic review June 2016 13 Feb, 2022
Low muscle strength predicts low vitamin D level in elderly – March 2021 06 May, 2021
Grip strength following wrist fracture increased by 50,000 IU Vitamin D monthly – May 2019 09 May, 2019
Vitamin D supplementation increases strength of lower muscles – Meta-analysis April 2019 01 May, 2019
Seniors getting Vitamin D (but no exercise) for 3 months failed to increase muscle strength – RCT June 2018 03 Jul, 2018
Poor handgrip strength in 5-year-old girls 3X more likely if low vitamin D – May 2018 24 May, 2018
Vitamin D weekly supplementation (Spinal Cord Injury athletes) increased handgrip strength – May 2018 15 May, 2018
Osteoporosis and low grip strength both associated with low vitamin D – Feb 2018 13 Feb, 2018
Vitamin D improves muscle strength, reduces falling, and reduces frailty – review March 2015 27 Jul, 2017
Muscle strength not increased by Vitamin D - 96 percent were not deficient – RCT April 2017 20 Jul, 2017
Muscle strength not increased by Vitamin D when 96 percent already had enough – RCT April 2017 30 Apr, 2017
Muscle strength of senior women increased 25 percent with vitamin D, decreased 6 percent with placebo – Oct 2016 08 Mar, 2017
Handgrip strength dropped by 20 percent in the last generation (perhaps due to lower vitamin D) - Feb 2017 02 Mar, 2017
Vitamin D increased muscle strength by 1% to 19% (varied with dose and duration) – review June 2016 22 Nov, 2016
Vitamin D increased muscle strength by 1 to 19 percent – review June 2016 22 Nov, 2016
Vitamin D increasing muscle strength may reduce knee pain – Feb 2016 22 Nov, 2016
Muscle strength is associated with vitamin D receptor gene variants – March 2016 12 Nov, 2016
Vitamin D supplementation improves muscle strength in healthy adults – meta-analysis of 6 RCT Aug 2014 31 Oct, 2016
Muscle strength of Judo athletes increased 13 percent following single dose of 150,000 IU vitamin D – RCT Nov 2015 05 Nov, 2015
Pelvic floor muscle strength is low after giving birth if vitamin D deficient – March 2015 20 Mar, 2015
People with old burns improved muscle strength with 2200 IU average vitamin D – RCT Sept 2014 20 Dec, 2014
Ankle strength and vitamin D lowest in winter, and were associated with more elderly falls – May 2012 09 Mar, 2014
Elderly lower limb muscle strength improved with Vitamin D supplementation - Meta-analysis Oct 2013 23 Dec, 2013
Vitamin D improves muscle strength if deficient – meta-analysis - Oct 2010 19 Dec, 2013
Muscle strength not increased by raising vitamin D to only 30 ng – RCT Aug 2012 19 Dec, 2013
Muscle strength in youth increased with 60,000 IU vitamin D per week and 1 g Calcium – April 2010 10 Aug, 2013
Vitamin D2 intervention increased elderly muscle strength – Nov 2010 10 Nov, 2012
Higher vitamin D helps regain muscle strength after knee surgery – July 2011 01 Sep, 2011

17+ VitaminDWiki pages containing SARCOPENIA in title

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 18
Title Modified
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) is reduced by vitamin D and many other supplements - July 2023 27 Aug, 2023
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) fought by Vitamin D, exercise and protein - many studies 11 Jul, 2023
Sarcopenia with obesity is more likely if dark skin, diabetes, OR COPD (all associated with low vitamin D) 16 Oct, 2021
Severe sarcopenia (loss of muscle) 6 X more likely in women with rheumatoid arthritis having low vitamin D – Oct 2021 16 Oct, 2021
Loss of muscle strength –sarcopenia – one of the suspects is vitamin D – Aug 2012 16 Oct, 2021
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) is 1.6X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – July 2020 23 Jul, 2020
Sarcopenia reduction: Protein, Leucine, Omega-3, Vitamin D, and exercise - hypothesis Aug 2018 30 Jan, 2020
Muscle loss (sarcopenia) may be both prevented and treated by Omega-3 – Feb 2019 23 Feb, 2019
Seniors can restore lost muscle (Sarcopenia) – first restore vitamin D, then exercise – July 2018 13 Jul, 2018
Sarcopenia does not officially exist in Australia, but 1 in 3 of their seniors have it - July 2018 03 Jul, 2018
Sarcopenia: Nutrition and physical activity – systematic review – Jan 2017 10 Mar, 2017
Added 1 lb of muscle to sarcopenia adults in 13 weeks with just 800 IU vitamin D and protein – RCT Jan 2017 31 Jan, 2017
Hypothesis: Sarcopenia and other senior problems are related to low gastic acid 12 May, 2015
Sarcopenia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (vitamin D not mentioned) – Sept 2013 07 Mar, 2015
Hypothesis: Sarcopenia and other senior problems are related to low gastric acid 01 Feb, 2015
Vitamin D is one of the treatments for sarcopenia – Nov 2012 31 Jan, 2015
No correlation found between vitamin D and sarcopenia – German dissertation Jan 2013 22 Jan, 2013
Novel treatment approaches to cachexia and sarcopenia: 13 Apr, 2010

See also: Muscular Dystrophy probably treated by high-dose Vitamin D plus muscle rehab


Creatine might help grow senior muscles when added to exercise


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