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Preterm birth and low Vitamin D - many studies


Preterm birth rates are higher if

Preterm birth rates decrease when add

Premies' lifetime healthcare costs will decrease if add Vitamin D

146+ VitaminDWiki pages have PREEMIE or PRE-TERM in the title

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Items found: 146
Title Modified
Omega supplementation helped preemie sensory processing – RCT Dec 2017 17 Jun, 2024
3X reduction in preemie Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia if add tiny amount of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2024 17 Jun, 2024
800 mg of Magnesium early in 3rd trimester significantly increased brain activity in preterm infants – RCT May 2024 03 Jun, 2024
2X less risk of respiratory distress syndrome if 50,000 IU of Vitamin D just before premature birth – RCT May 2024 18 May, 2024
Preterm birth rate increased in US but decreased in Finland (high Vitamin D) - Jan 2024 09 Feb, 2024
Off Topic: Xylitol reduces cavities, preterm births, osteoporosis, RTI, obesity, diabetes, etc. - several studies 01 Jan, 2024
Preterm birth chance reduced –17P (expensive drug) or Vitamin D – June 2015 01 Jan, 2024
Male preemies had poor heart rate regulation as adults (preemies have low vitamin D) – Dec 2023 25 Dec, 2023
Preterm birth and low Vitamin D - many studies 24 Dec, 2023
Preterm births are VERY costly – Feb 2017 24 Dec, 2023
Preterm birth cost for employers approximately 50,000 dollars – Oct 2017 24 Dec, 2023
Female preemies become women with low hand grip strength - Dec 2023 24 Dec, 2023
Preterm Birth 2.7X more likely if low vitamin D (dark skin in this case) - Nov 2023 01 Nov, 2023
4.4 X more likely to have a preterm birth if low vitamin D while pregnant (India) - May 2022 01 Nov, 2023
Preemies with pneumonia infection have especially low vitamin D levels (12 ng) – May 2023 08 Oct, 2023
Omega-3 supplementation reduced preterm birth rate by 4X – RCT July 2020 21 Oct, 2022
Preterm birth decreased by Omege-3, etc. - many studies 21 Oct, 2022
Arab preterm infants often have less than 10 ng of vitamin D - 2010 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth interventions – 4 studies found possible vitamin D benefit – Cochrane – Nov 2018 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth might be prevented by Vitamin D, Omega-3, etc. (International survey) – Jan 2019 15 May, 2022
Preterm Births - promising preventions – anti-oxidants, Vitamin D, Omega-3, Zinc, etc. – Jan 2019 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth reduction by nutrients - Vitamin D is the best, Omega-3 is next best – May 2022 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth rate of pregnant smokers cut in half if take Omega-3 – RCT May 2017 20 Feb, 2022
Preterm birth varies with season: 25 percent more likely if conception in autumn – Feb 2022 04 Feb, 2022
Supplement preterm infants with vitamin D if less than 80 ng – RCT Sept 2021 28 Sep, 2021
Preterm infants need Vitamin D 04 Aug, 2021
Pre-term birth rate cut in half with 1000 milligrams of Omega-3 (if initially low) – RCT May 2021 04 Jun, 2021
Preemies should have vitamin D supplements – reaching an agreement – April 2021 01 May, 2021
Preemies 2.5 X more likely to get hip replacement etc. (low vitamin D) – Nov 2014 30 Apr, 2021
Preemie Respiratory Distress Syndrome is 5X more likely if low vitamin D – Dec 2020 18 Dec, 2020
Preterm birth risk increased 16 pcnt if heat wave (perhaps outside less) - Nov 2020 16 Nov, 2020
Preterm birth associated with many genes, including the Vitamin D Receptor again – Jan 2020 30 Jan, 2020
Preterm birth 8X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Dec 2019 31 Dec, 2019
8 percent fewer preterm births if adequate Selenium from food – Aug 2019 24 Dec, 2019
Pregnant women in Australia to take Omega-3 when told of reduction in preterm births – Dec 2019 19 Nov, 2019
Preterm birth 9 X more likely if fetus had a poor Vitamin D Receptor and previous miscarriage – Aug 2017 12 Nov, 2019
Preemies still have low vitamin D at age 6 – Oct 2019 30 Oct, 2019
Preterm births reduced by Vitamin D, Omega-3, Zinc – Oct 2019 26 Oct, 2019
Preterm birth rate not vary with vitamin D level (when all are less than 30 ng) – Oct 2019 17 Oct, 2019
Extreme preterm infants helped somewhat by 800 IU of vitamin D – RCT Jan 2018 01 Oct, 2019
Preterm Births reduced by Omega-3, Zinc, and Vitamin D – Aug 2019 09 Aug, 2019
Preterm birth increases risk of heart disease by 1.5 X by age 40 – June 2019 06 Aug, 2019
No preemie had even 30 ng of vitamin D, lower D associated with more Respiratory Distress – Aug 2013 24 Jul, 2019
Preemie immunity (Treg) vastly improved by 800 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT July 2019 24 Jul, 2019
Rickets in Sweden recently increased by 6X (mainly preemies) – May 2019 06 May, 2019
Preterm Births decreased by Omega-3 (analysis of 184 countries) – April 2019 27 Apr, 2019
Vaginal microbiome varies with race, vitamin D level, preterm birth, etc. - March 2019 27 Mar, 2019
Premature births predicted in office by 2024 - Bill Gates (vs. reduce preemies by half now with Vitamin D) - Feb 2019 28 Feb, 2019
Respiratory Distress Syndrome in preemies 5 X more likely if poor vitamin D receptor – Feb 2019 15 Feb, 2019
Preterm birth 3X more likely if low vitamin D – Oct 2018 07 Feb, 2019
Premature or low birth weight resulted in children 3X more likely to be anxious – meta-analysis May 2011 25 Jan, 2019
Omega-3 index of 5 greatly decreases the risk of an early preterm birth – Dec 2018 04 Jan, 2019
Preterm babies have low vitamin D, but recover in 6 weeks with 800 IU supplementation – Jan 2019 01 Jan, 2019
Off Topic: Premature birth results in less schooling and income (age 28, 228,000 Danes) – Dec 2018 15 Dec, 2018
Preterm births 12 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (white infants in Italy) – meta-analysis Aug 2018 27 Aug, 2018
Autism and ADHD type disorders were 14X more likely in survey of extreme preterm vaccinated infants - April 2017 04 Jul, 2018
FDA petitioned to acknowledge that vitamin D cuts preterm birth rate in half – May 2018 13 May, 2018
Racial differences in health problems (premature births) disappeared when vitamin D levels were the same – April 2018 18 Apr, 2018
Preterm birth 4X more likely if Vitamin D deficient – Feb 2018 04 Apr, 2018
Prematurely aging kids (Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome) might be helped by Vitamin D– March 2018 20 Mar, 2018
Preterm birth 4X more likely if very low Vitamin D (Chinese) - Feb 2018 28 Feb, 2018
60 percent of preemies have brain damage from lack of brain Oxygen, which is associated with low vitamin D – Feb 2018 22 Feb, 2018
Pregnancies with more than 40 ng of vitamin D are great - miscarriage, LBW, SGA, preterm – Feb 2018 14 Feb, 2018
Pregnancies with more than 40 ng of vitamin D are great - miscarriage, LBW, SGA, preterm – Feb 2018 14 Feb, 2018
The more caffeine while pregnant (coffee, cola) the more bone pain in premature infants – Jan 2018 24 Jan, 2018
Preterm birth rates increased in 15 European countries – Oct 2013 23 Dec, 2017
Increasing Omega-3 reduces heart problems, autism, depression, preterm birth, breast cancer, etc. 15 Dec, 2017
Vitamin D intervention reduces preterm births and low birth weight by 60 percent – Cochrane Reviews – Nov 2017 07 Dec, 2017
Preterm birth rate increased 60 percent in 50 years (US) 26 Nov, 2017
Born too soon – premature births report by W.H.O. – 2010 26 Nov, 2017
Preterm cost for employers, increased 65 percent in 2 years – Oct 2017 26 Nov, 2017
Preterm birth far more likely if previous miscarriage and poor Vitamin D receptor – Aug 2017 20 Nov, 2017
Preemies with poor lungs (Respiratory distress syndrome) have low levels of vitamin D – Nov 2017 14 Nov, 2017
Preterm birth is related to Vitamin D Receptor problems – many studies agree 13 Nov, 2017
Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc 13 Nov, 2017
Preterm birth and Vitamin D Receptor – Dec 2016 13 Nov, 2017
Vitamin D Receptor is associated with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth – Nov 2017 10 Nov, 2017
Preemies getting 800 IU of vitamin D were 3X less likely to have low bone density 4 weeks later – RCT Oct 2017 22 Oct, 2017
APS (associated with miscarriage, stillbirth. preterm delivery and stroke) is 3X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2017 13 Oct, 2017
Preterm birth trend toward 2.5 X more likely if less than 10 ng of Vitamin D – Aug 2017 26 Aug, 2017
Sleep Problems in Pregnancy Tied to Premature Births (no surprise, both related to low vitamin D) – Aug 2017 08 Aug, 2017
Preemies need 1,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Sept 2017 03 Aug, 2017
Premature infants (30 weeks) who got 800-1000 IU of vitamin D were much healthier – March 2017 03 Aug, 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced by vitamin D – 78 percent if non-white, 39 percent if white – July 2017 27 Jul, 2017
Preterm birth more likely if dark skinned and low vitamin D (not white-skinned) – April 2017 06 Jul, 2017
Dark skinned Canadian women with low vitamin D are 4 X more likely to have preterm births – April 2017 06 Jul, 2017
Preterm birth 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor, 9 X if also had previous miscarriage – June 2017 15 Jun, 2017
Sepsis in first year of life is much more likely if preterm (low Vitamin D) – May 2017 10 May, 2017
Premature infants (30 weeks) who got 800-1000 IU of vitamin D were much healthier – RCT March 2017 05 May, 2017
Iodine added during pregnancy reduces preterm births, increases IQ. Etc. 27 Apr, 2017
Risk of preterm birth twice as likely when less than 10 ng of vitamin D – Nov 2016 13 Apr, 2017
Folic acid reduces both premature births and neural tube defects – March 2017 05 Apr, 2017
Preemies with low Vitamin D are 14 percent more like to have expensive gut problems (necrotizing enterocolitis) – March 2017 24 Mar, 2017
Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy increased prematurity risk by 60 percent - meta-analysis 1999 06 Mar, 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced by 43 percent with adequate Vitamin D supplementation – meta-analysis Feb 2017 02 Mar, 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced by 0.57 with adequate Vitamin D supplementation – meta-analysis Feb 2017 28 Feb, 2017
Pre-term birth - many of risk factors are associated with low vitamin D 27 Feb, 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced 57 percent by Vitamin D – Nov 2015 23 Jan, 2017
Vitamin D Webinar - cost of pre-term birth etc- Baggerly Nov 2013 11 Dec, 2016
Preterm birth extended by 2 weeks with Omega-3 – Meta-analysis Nov 2015 10 Dec, 2016
Preterm birth 3.3 times more likely if Vitamin D Receptor gene problem – Aug 2016 15 Oct, 2016
Omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy reduce early preterm births (save 1500 USD per child) – Aug 2016 12 Oct, 2016
Premature birth 2.5X more likely if mother had low vitamin D and was having twins – July 2013 30 Jun, 2016
Zinc helps pregnancies – 14 percent fewer preterm births, etc. – Cochrane RCT Feb 2015 14 Jun, 2016
Premature birth and infant mortality worse if dark skin (low vitamin D) - 2015 07 Jun, 2016
Preterm birth has become the leading cause of infant mortality (vitamin D not mentioned) – JAMA June 2016 07 Jun, 2016
Preterm birth 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016 20 May, 2016
Extreme preterm infants need a total of 1,000 IU of vitamin D daily – RCT April 2016 13 Apr, 2016
Premature infants need 400 to 800 IU of vitamin D 13 Apr, 2016
Preemies have increased need for vitamin D and Calcium (Rickets)– May 2013 15 Mar, 2016
Asthmatic pregnant women had 30 percent more preterm births if air pollution (vitamin D not mentioned) – March 2016 09 Mar, 2016
Vitamin D is being used to prevent premature births – Baggerly interview – Dec 2015 18 Dec, 2015
Omega-3 helps pregnancy in many ways: preterm 26 percent less likely etc – review July 2012 08 Sep, 2015
Extreme preterm survival 30 percent less likely if little sunshine 23-28 weeks – June 2015 05 Sep, 2015
Magnesium (Sulfate) reduces risk of cerebral palsy for those at risk of pre-term births – Dec 2013 18 Aug, 2015
Respiratory distress after preterm birth is more likely if low vitamin D – review April 2015 05 Aug, 2015
All preemies with Chronic Lung Disease had low vitamin D levels– July 2015 01 Aug, 2015
High risk of premature birth if high BMI (low vitamin D) – June 2013 21 Mar, 2015
High risk of extremely premature birth if high BMI (low vitamin D) – June 2013 21 Mar, 2015
Many preemies need at least 800 IU of vitamin D – RCT May 2013 16 Mar, 2015
Pre-term births reduced in half if 40 ng of vitamin D in 3rd trimester – Nov 2014 15 Mar, 2015
Preterm births are associated most strongly with low vitamin D in third trimester – Nov 2014 13 Mar, 2015
Chance of preterm birth is strongly associated with low vitamin D – Feb 2015 05 Feb, 2015
The more preterm the birth, the lower the vitamin D level (both mothers and infants) – Feb 2014 05 Feb, 2015
Preterm infants more likely to have vitamin D levels below 20 ng – Feb 2014 05 Feb, 2015
Decreased risk of preterm birth if have more than 36 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2015 09 Jan, 2015
Autism associated with preterm and low birth weight (both associated with low vitamin D) – Nov 2014 31 Dec, 2014
Why higher levels of vitamin D reduces premature birth - April 2011 30 Oct, 2014
Preterm infants, kidney, rickets and vitamin D intake: is it time for rewriting the history – Aug 2014 26 Aug, 2014
Preemies have low vitamin D levels yet only get 400 IU – July 2013 15 Aug, 2014
Fewer pre-term births after pollution reduction (vitamin D not mentioned) April 2014 16 Jun, 2014
Rickets in half of premature births – 200 IU of vitamin D is enough – RCT May 2014 24 May, 2014
300 IU is not enough vitamin D for preterm infants – March 2014 22 Apr, 2014
Pre-term birth 3X more likely and C-section 4X if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – May 2012 13 Feb, 2014
Morbid obesity increases chance of extreme preemie by 3X (low vitamin D not mentioned) – June 2013 21 Sep, 2013
Study found little proof that preemies need more vitamin D – Sept 2013 15 Sep, 2013
Some preemies needed more than 400 IU of vitamin D – July 2013 12 Aug, 2013
Getting pregnant in May increases chance of premature birth by 10 percent – July 2013 10 Jul, 2013
Premature delivery associated with low vitamin D in Japanese women – Mar 2011 30 Jun, 2013
400 IU not enough to raise preemies vitamin D level to 30 ng – Dissertation 2010 01 Jun, 2013
Recurrent pre term birth and low vitamin D – Dec 2012 23 Jan, 2013
Osteopenia in preterm infants – May 2012 27 Dec, 2012
Blacks have more pre-term births due to low nutrients such as vitamin D – Sept 2011 14 Sep, 2011
In Defence of the Sun – reduce 400000 premature deaths – 2009 13 Jul, 2011
Pre-term birth not associated with first tri-mester vitamin D – April 2011 21 Apr, 2011
Dark-skin plus low vitamin D in first trimester made preterm birth 2.9 X more likely – Dec 2019 No value for 'modification_date_major'

6 Preterm Charts

US - 2022

global rate increasing

Suspect lifetime cost of health problems of preemies exceeds that of term birth
Only includes the first 6 month costs. Ignores additional costs for the rest of the life

Preterm Birth rates around the world (Lancet)
the study is on this page

Preterm birth rate increased 60 percent in 50 years (US)
From data gathered from web by Henry Lahore Nov 2017

Preterm birth 7 times more likely if low vitamin D 1 month before – May 2023

Post-hoc Analysis of NICHD Vitamin D Pregnancy Cohort and The Role of Functional Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnancy
Am J Perinatol. 2023 May 22. doi: 10.1055/a-2097-2098 PDF is behind paywall
Shellie Davis 1, Elliott Lyles 2, Judy Shary 3, Myla Ebeling 4, Susan G Reed 1, John E Baatz 1, Bruce W Hollis 3, Carol L Wagner 1

Objective: Conduct a secondary, post-hoc analysis of NICHD vitamin D (vitD) pregnancy study by Hollis et al. (Hollis, 2011), which reported on the effect of vitD supplementation in pregnant women, and determine the potential interaction between intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentrations, vitD status, and various comorbidities associated with pregnancy.

Hypothesis: Women with low 25(OH)D concentrations and high iPTH concentrations during pregnancy, known as functional vitD deficiency (FVDD), were more likely to acquire complications also affecting their neonates.

Study design: This post-hoc analysis of data collected from a diverse group of pregnant women participating in the NICHD vitD pregnancy study, was applied to investigate the applicability of the concept of FVDD in pregnancy (Hemmingway, 2018) in identifying potential risks for certain comorbidities of pregnancy. This analysis defines FVDD as maternal serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 20 ng/mL and iPTH concentrations above 65 pg/mL creating a definitive ratio number, 0.308, to classify mothers as having FVDD prior to delivery (PTD). Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.4 (Cary, NC).

Results: 281 women (85 African American, 115 Hispanic, 81 Caucasian) with 25(OH)D and iPTH concentrations measured at monthly visits were included in this analysis. No statistically significant association was found between mothers classified as having FVDD at baseline or one-month PTD and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, infection, or admittance to the NICU. When combining all comorbidities of pregnancy in this cohort, results showed those with FVDD at baseline, 24 weeks' gestation, and one-month PTD were more likely to experience a comorbidity (p=0.001; p=0.001; p=0.004, respectively).
Those with FVDD one-month PTD were 7.1 times (CI 1.71-29.81) more likely to have preterm birth (<37 weeks) than women without FVDD.

Conclusions: Participants were more likely to have experienced preterm birth if they met the criteria for FVDD. This study supports the importance of FVDD during pregnancy.

Preterm birth 1.3X more-likely if low vitamin D in 2nd trimester - meta-analysis June 2021

Systematic review and meta-analysis of vitamin D deficiency in different pregnancy on preterm birth Deficiency in middle pregnancy might be at risk
DOI: 10.1097/MD.000000000002630 FREE PDF

VitaminDWiki - Pregnancy category contains

896 items in Pregnancy category

 - see also

VitaminDWiki - Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D contains

Vit. D
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

Global preterm birth rates 2010 - Lancet

National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications
Published:June 09, 2012 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60820-4


Preterm birth is the second largest direct cause of child deaths in children younger than 5 years. Yet, data regarding preterm birth (<37 completed weeks of gestation) are not routinely collected by UN agencies, and no systematic country estimates nor time trend analyses have been done. We report worldwide, regional, and national estimates of preterm birth rates for 184 countries in 2010 with time trends for selected countries, and provide a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty surrounding these estimates.
We assessed various data sources according to prespecified inclusion criteria. National Registries (563 datapoints, 51 countries), Reproductive Health Surveys (13 datapoints, eight countries), and studies identified through systematic searches and unpublished data (162 datapoints, 40 countries) were included. 55 countries submitted additional data during WHO's country consultation process. For 13 countries with adequate quality and quantity of data, we estimated preterm birth rates using country-level loess regression for 2010. For 171 countries, two regional multilevel statistical models were developed to estimate preterm birth rates for 2010. We estimated time trends from 1990 to 2010 for 65 countries with reliable time trend data and more than 10 000 livebirths per year. We calculated uncertainty ranges for all countries.

In 2010, an estimated 14·9 million babies (uncertainty range 12·3–18·1 million) were born preterm, 11·1% of all livebirths worldwide, ranging from about 5% in several European countries to 18% in some African countries. More than 60% of preterm babies were born in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where 52% of the global livebirths occur. Preterm birth also affects rich countries, for example, USA has high rates and is one of the ten countries with the highest numbers of preterm births. Of the 65 countries with estimated time trends, only three (Croatia, Ecuador, and Estonia), had reduced preterm birth rates 1990–2010.

The burden of preterm birth is substantial and is increasing in those regions with reliable data. Improved recording of all pregnancy outcomes and standard application of preterm definitions is important. We recommend the addition of a data-quality indicator of the per cent of all live preterm births that are under 28 weeks' gestation. Distinguishing preterm births that are spontaneous from those that are provider-initiated is important to monitor trends associated with increased caesarean sections. Rapid scale up of basic interventions could accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4 for child survival and beyond.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

115,000 Google Scholar hits for preterm etc. and "Vitamin D" as of Dec 2023

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Asked Chat-GPT: "What health problems do preemies have as adults?" (Dec 2023)

Premature babies, often referred to as "preemies," can face a range of health issues in adulthood, which are partly determined by the degree of prematurity and the medical complications they experienced as infants. Some of the common long-term health problems that preemies may encounter as adults include:

  1. Respiratory Problems: Premature babies are at a higher risk for developing respiratory issues, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), because their lungs may not have fully developed before birth.
  2. Cardiovascular Issues: Adults who were born prematurely may have a higher risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. This increased risk is thought to be related to the underdevelopment of the heart and vascular system in preemies.
  3. Neurological Problems: Premature birth can affect brain development, leading to a higher risk of neurological disorders in adulthood, such as cerebral palsy, learning disabilities, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  4. Metabolic Disorders: Being born prematurely is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndromes, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, in adulthood.
  5. Visual and Hearing Impairments: Premature infants are at a higher risk for vision and hearing problems, which can persist into adulthood. Conditions like retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can lead to visual impairment.
  6. Mental Health Issues: There is evidence suggesting that adults who were born prematurely may have an increased risk of mental health disorders, including depression and anxiety.
  7. Dental Problems: Preemies might face a higher risk of dental issues, including enamel hypoplasia (defective enamel), which can lead to an increased risk of cavities and other dental problems.
  8. Reproductive Challenges: Women who were born prematurely may experience reproductive issues, such as a higher risk of giving birth prematurely themselves.

It's important to note that while preemies are at a higher risk for these health problems, not all premature babies will experience them. Advances in neonatal care have significantly improved the outcomes for premature babies, and many go on to lead healthy lives. Regular medical follow-up and a healthy lifestyle can help mitigate some of these risks.

Note: Many of these health problems have been treated by Vitamin D

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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
20537 preterm less than 28 weeks.png admin 24 Dec, 2023 64.79 Kb 89
20536 Global preterm birth rates.png admin 24 Dec, 2023 66.82 Kb 68
20535 Preterm lancet.pdf admin 24 Dec, 2023 599.24 Kb 50
20532 preterm global.png admin 24 Dec, 2023 82.67 Kb 78
20531 preterm states.png admin 24 Dec, 2023 361.39 Kb 92