Int J Sports Med. 2013 Mar;34(3):248-52. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1321894. Epub 2012 Sep 12.
Peeling P, Fulton SK, Binnie M, Goodman C.
School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia. ppeeling at wais.org.au
This study assessed the associations between gender, anthropometry, predominant training environment and Vitamin D status in 72 elite athletes. Additionally, any links between Vitamin D status and recent injury/health status, or sun protection practices were investigated. Athletes underwent an anthropometric assessment and provided venous blood samples for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), the accepted biological marker of Vitamin D status. Finally, athletes completed a questionnaire relating to their recent training and injury history, and their sun protection practices. The athlete cohort were divided by predominant training environment as either indoor, outdoor, or mixed training environment athletes. The average ( ± SD) 25(OH)D levels of the group were 111 ± 37 nmol/L, with the indoor training group (90 ± 28 nmol/L) significantly lower than the outdoor (131 ± 35 nmol/L), and mixed (133 ± 29 nmol/L) training groups (p = 0.0001).
Anthropometrical measures were positively associated with 25(OH)D levels;
however, recent injury status or sun protection practice showed no association.
Given the significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between the outdoor and indoor predominant training environments, coaches of indoor athletes may wish to monitor their athletes' Vitamin D levels throughout the year, in order to avoid any possibilities of a deficiency occurring.
- Outdoor distance runners had great Vitamin D levels (50 ng) – Dec 2015
- Vitamin D and Muscles – Major review: Feb 2013
- Review of Vitamin D and Physical Performance – May 2013
- Sport performance not improved after 5710 IU of vitamin D daily for 12 weeks – Feb 2012
- 25(OH)D (Calcidiol) in animal-based food increases effective vitamin D by 6X – March 2014
- Meat eating athletes effectively get more semi-activated vitamin D in their blood
Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to supplement with vitamin D or use vitamin D beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Reduced Concussions
See also: Sports and Vitamin D category