Table of contents
- VitaminDWiki pages with SELENIUM in title (15 as of Oct 2022)
- Selenium Deficiency Due to Diet, Pregnancy, Severe Illness, or COVID-19—A Preventable Trigger for Autoimmune Disease - Aug 2021
- Selenium Deficiency - 2018 free PDF?
- Selenium Fact Sheet - NIH
- Molecular Biology of Selenium in Health and Disease - special issue March 2020. 385 pages
- The Many Health Benefits Of Selenium - 2015
- Selenium status and cardiovascular diseases: meta-analysis of prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials - 2016
- Good levels of Selenium and Gluthione cut Breast Cancer mortality in half - Nov 2021
VitaminDWiki pages with SELENIUM in title (15 as of Oct 2022)
This list is automatically updated
Selenium Deficiency Due to Diet, Pregnancy, Severe Illness, or COVID-19—A Preventable Trigger for Autoimmune Disease - Aug 2021
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168532
by Lutz Schomburg
Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Cardiovascular–Metabolic–Renal (CMR)-Research Center, Hessische Straße 3-4, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
The trace element selenium (Se) is an essential part of the human diet; moreover, increased health risks have been observed with Se deficiency. A sufficiently high Se status is a prerequisite for adequate immune response, and preventable endemic diseases are known from areas with Se deficiency. Biomarkers of Se status decline strongly in pregnancy, severe illness, or COVID-19, reaching critically low concentrations. Notably, these conditions are associated with an increased risk for autoimmune disease (AID). Positive effects on the immune system are observed with Se supplementation in pregnancy, autoimmune thyroid disease, and recovery from severe illness. However, some studies reported null results; the database is small, and randomized trials are sparse. The current need for research on the link between AID and Se deficiency is particularly obvious for rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Despite these gaps in knowledge, it seems timely to realize that severe Se deficiency may trigger AID in susceptible subjects. Improved dietary choices or supplemental Se are efficient ways to avoid severe Se deficiency, thereby decreasing AID risk and improving disease course. A personalized approach is needed in clinics and during therapy, while population-wide measures should be considered for areas with habitual low Se intake.
Finland has been adding Se to its food chain for more than 35 years—a wise and commendable decision, according to today’s knowledge. It is unfortunate that the health risks of Se deficiency are often neglected, while possible side effects of Se supplementation are exaggerated, leading to disregard for this safe and promising preventive and adjuvant treatment options. This is especially true in the follow-up situations of pregnancy, severe illness, or COVID-19, where massive Se deficiencies have developed and are associated with AID risk, long-lasting health impairments, and slow recovery.
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Selenium Deficiency - 2018 free PDF?
Shreenath AP1, Ameer MA2, Dooley J3
Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that is essential to human health. Selenium, in the form of selenoproteins, carries out various functions in normal health and metabolism.  In particular, glutathione peroxidase (G-Px), a selenoprotein, performs antioxidant activities that protect against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Iodothyronine deiodinases that convert inactive thyroxine (T4) to active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), are selenium-dependent.  Selenium plays a role in the immune system functioning and the progression of HIV to AIDS.
Selenium deficiency has been implicated in
- cardiovascular disease,
- myodegenerative diseases, and
- cognitive decline.
The role of selenium in cancer treatment is currently being studied. In the 200 years since its discovery in 1817, the role of selenium in human health has evolved. Previously maligned as a carcinogen, it is now being understood as a vital nutrient, albeit one with a low window from being therapeutic to toxic.
Selenium Fact Sheet - NIH
. Recommended Intakes
Sources of Selenium
Selenium Intakes and Status
Groups at Risk of Selenium Inadequacy
Selenium and Health
Health Risks from Excessive Selenium
Interactions with Medications
Selenium and Healthful Diets
Molecular Biology of Selenium in Health and Disease - special issue March 2020. 385 pages
PDF is too large to host on VitaminDWiki
The Many Health Benefits Of Selenium - 2015
Selenium status and cardiovascular diseases: meta-analysis of prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials - 2016
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 70, pages 162–169
X Zhang, C Liu, J Guo & Y Song
20% CVD risk reduction if good level of Selenium
Selenium was thought to have a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) owing to its antioxidant properties; however, evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has been inconsistent and controversial. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to assess the discrepancies between observational and randomized trial evidence.
We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for eligible prospective studies regarding the relationship between selenium and CVD up to 15 December 2013 and finally included 16 prospective observational studies and 16 RCTs. Random effects model was used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR). Generalized least-squares trend test and restricted cubic spline model were performed to assess a linear and a nonlinear dose–response relationship.
Our meta-analysis of prospective studies showed a nonlinear relationship of CVD risk with blood selenium concentrations across a range of 30–165 μg/l and a significant benefit of CVD within a narrow selenium range of 55–145 μg/l. Our meta-analyses of RCTs showed that oral selenium supplements (median dose: 200 μg/day) for 2 weeks to 144 months significantly raised the blood selenium concentrations by 56.4 μg/l (95% confidence interval (CI): 40.9, 72.0 μg/l), whereas oral selenium supplements (median: 100 μg/day) for 6 to 114 months caused no effect on CVD (RR=0.91; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.10).
Our meta-analysis in prospective studies demonstrated a significant inverse association between selenium status and CVD risk within a narrow selenium range and a null effect of selenium supplementation on CVD was observed in RCTs. These findings indicate the importance of considering selenium status, dose and safety in health assessment and future study design.
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Another meta-analysis in 2020
Selenium, antioxidants, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 112, Issue 6, December 2020, Pages 1642–1652, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa245
- "However, a decreased risk with antioxidant mixtures was seen for CVD mortality when selenium was part of the mix (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.97; P = 0.02), with no association when selenium was absent. Similarly, when selenium was part of the antioxidant mixture, a decreased risk was seen for all-cause mortality (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98; P = 0.02) as opposed to an increased risk when selenium was absent (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13; P = 0.0002)."
Good levels of Selenium and Gluthione cut Breast Cancer mortality in half - Nov 2021
Serum selenium, selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase 3 as predictors of mortality and recurrence following breast cancer diagnosis: A multicentre cohort study
Redox Biology Volume 47, November 2021, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102145
Author links open overlay panelKamilDemircanabYlvaBengtssoncQianSunaAnnieBrangecJohanVallon-ChristerssondEddyRijntjesaMartinMalmbergeLao H.SaaldLisaRydéncÅkeBorgdJonasManjercLutzSchomburga
The trace element selenium is of essential importance for the synthesis of a set of redox active proteins. We investigated three complementary serum selenium status biomarkers in relation to overall survival and recurrence following diagnosis of primary invasive breast cancer in a large prospective cohort study. The Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network – Breast Initiative (SCAN-B) is a prospective population-based study including multiple participating hospitals. Main analyses included 1996 patients with a new diagnosis of primary invasive breast cancer, with blood sampling at the time of diagnosis.
In sera of the patients,
- total serum selenium,
- selenoprotein P (SELENOP), and
- glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) activity was analysed.
All three biomarkers showed a positive correlation (p < 0.001), supporting the high quality of samples and analytical techniques. During a total of 13,306 person years of follow-up, 310 deaths and 167 recurrent breast cancer events occurred. In fully adjusted Cox models, all three biomarkers correlated inversely with mortality (p trend <0.001) and compared with the lowest quintile, hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for overall survival in the highest quintile of selenium, SELENOP and GPx3 were 0.42 (0.28–0.63), 0.51 (0.36–0.73) and 0.52 (0.36–0.75), respectively. Low GPx3 activity was associated with more recurrences (Q5 vs Q1: fully adjusted HR (95%CI); 0.57 (0.35–0.92), (p trend = 0.005).
Patients with low selenium status according to all three biomarkers (triple deficient) had the highest mortality risk with an overall survival probability of ∼50% after 8 years, in particular as compared to those having at least one marker in the highest quintile; fully adjusted HR (95%CI); 0.30 (0.21–0.43). Prediction of mortality based on all three biomarkers outperformed established tumour characteristics like histologic grade, number of involved lymph nodes or tumour size. An assessment of Se status at breast cancer diagnosis identifies patients at exceptionally high risk for a poor prognosis.
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Chart of data by Grassroots Health