Association of Cesarean Delivery With Risk of Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders in the Offspring – A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910236. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10236
Tianyang Zhang, MSc1,2,3; Anna Sidorchuk, MD, PhD1,2; Laura Sevilla-Cermeño, MD1,2,4; et al Alba Vilaplana-Pérez, MSc1,2,5; Zheng Chang, PhD3; Henrik Larsson, PhD3,6; David Mataix-Cols, PhD1,2; Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, PhD1,2
Items in both categories Autism and Intervention are listed here:
- Infants getting an additional 800 IU of vitamin D for 2 years had 60% fewer psychiatric symptoms at age 7 – RCT May 2023
- Autistic symptoms reduced by Vitamin D and or Omega-3 – RCT March 2019
- Autism risk reduced 2X by prenatal vitamins (Vitamin D or Folic) – Feb 2019
- Autistics have half of the response to Vitamin D (perhaps poor genes) – RCT Oct 2018
- Autism problems reduced by Vitamin D, Omega-3 – RCT Oct 2018
- Autism treated by Vitamin D (monthly injection of 150,000 IU) – June 2017
- Autism in children reduced by Vitamin D (used 300 IU per kg per day) – RCT Oct 2016
- Autism and Vitamin D massive review – latitude, season, migration, VitD levels and intervention – April 2016
- Autism rate in siblings reduced 4X by vitamin D: 5,000 IU during pregnancy, 1,000 IU to infants – Feb 2016
- Autism decreased in 8 out of 10 children supplemented with vitamin D – April 2015
- Autism cured in a child with Vitamin D, Dr. Cannell comments and cofactor recommendations – March 2015
C-section 4X more likely when vitamin D less than 15 ng – many items
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- Question Is birth by cesarean delivery associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring compared with birth by vaginal delivery?
- Findings In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 studies comprising more than 20 million deliveries, birth by cesarean delivery was significantly associated with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
- Meaning The findings suggest that understanding the potential mechanisms behind these associations is important, especially given the increase in cesarean delivery rates for nonmedical reasons.
Importance Birth by cesarean delivery is increasing globally, particularly cesarean deliveries without medical indication. Children born via cesarean delivery may have an increased risk of negative health outcomes, but the evidence for psychiatric disorders is incomplete.
Objective To evaluate the association between cesarean delivery and risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring.
Data Sources Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched from inception to December 19, 2018. Search terms included all main mental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition).
Study Selection Two researchers independently selected observational studies that examined the association between cesarean delivery and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring.
Data Extraction and Synthesis Two researchers independently extracted data according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) reporting guidelines and assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs for each outcome. Sensitivity and influence analyses tested the robustness of the results.
Main Outcomes and Measures The ORs for the offspring with any neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorder who were born via cesarean delivery compared with those were born via vaginal delivery.
Results A total of 6953 articles were identified, of which 61 studies comprising 67 independent samples were included, totaling 20 607 935 deliveries. Compared with offspring born by vaginal delivery, offspring born via cesarean delivery had increased odds of
- autism spectrum disorders (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.25-1.41; I2 = 69.5%) and
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26; I2 = 79.2%).
Estimates were less precise for
- intellectual disabilities (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 0.90-3.70; I2 = 88.2%),
- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.87-2.56; I2 = 67.3%),
- tic disorders (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.98-1.76; I2 = 75.6%), and
- eating disorders (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96-1.47; I2 = 92.7%).
No significant associations were found with depression/affective psychoses or nonaffective psychoses. Estimates were comparable for emergency and elective cesarean delivery. Study quality was high for 82% of the cohort studies and 50% of the case-control studies.
Conclusions and Relevance The findings suggest that cesarean delivery births are associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, irrespective of cesarean delivery modality, compared with vaginal delivery. Future studies on the mechanisms behind these associations appear to be warranted.