Many studies on this page
- Preterm Births reduced by Omega-3, Zinc, and Vitamin D – Aug 2019
- Preterm Births decreased by Omega-3 (analysis of 184 countries) – April 2019
- VDR, spontaneous preterm birth and gestational diabetes– Feb 2018
- Preterm Birth 3.3X as likely if poor VDR – Aug 2016
- Preterm birth 34 X more likely if have worst VDR combination - Dec 2016
- Preterm Birth twice as likely if poor VDR – Sept 2017
It may be more important to test Vit. D Receptor than to test Vit. D blood level
Items in both categories Pregnancy and VDR are listed here:
- Gestational Diabetes – increased risk if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Meta-Analysis Jan 2021
- Higher risk of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Feb 2021
- Spontaneous Miscarriage strongly associated with 2 vitamin D genes – March 2020
- Preterm birth associated with many genes, including the Vitamin D Receptor again – Jan 2020
- Preterm birth 8X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Dec 2019
- Preterm birth 9 X more likely if fetus had a poor Vitamin D Receptor and previous miscarriage – Aug 2017
- Recurrent miscarriage occurs 2.2 more often if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Aug 2019
- Gestational Diabetes 2.4X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (region in China) – June 2019
- Gestational Diabetes 3 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor (Turkey) – May 2019
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019
- Preterm births 12 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (white infants in Italy) – meta-analysis Aug 2018
- UV at time of conception associated with Vitamin D Receptor activation 65 years later – Sept 2017
- A good Vitamin D Receptor (or perhaps more vitamin D) protects against lead during pregnancy
- Vitamin D Receptor is associated with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth – Nov 2017
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus associated with 4 Vitamin D genes – Oct 2015
- Frequent miscarriage associated with both lower vitamin D and poor Vitamin D receptor – Sept 2017
- Vitamin D genes and pregnancy – 7th study - Sept 2017
- Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc
- Recurrent miscarriage associated with half as much vitamin D getting to fetus – Sept 2016
- Progesterone activates vitamin D receptor - many studies
Vitamin D Receptor category has the following
Vitamin D tests cannot detect Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) problems
A poor VDR restricts Vitamin D from getting in the cells
It appears that 30% of the population have a poor VDR (40% of the Obese )
VDR at-home test $29 - results not easily understood in 2016
There are hints that you may have inherited a poor VDR
Compensate for poor VDR by increasing one or more:
|1) Vitamin D supplement|
Sun, Ultraviolet -B
| Vitamin D in the blood |
and thus in the cells
|2) Magnesium||Vitamin D in the blood |
AND in the cells
|3) Omega-3||Vitamin D in the cells|
|4) Resveratrol||Vitamin D Receptor|
|5) Intense exercise||Vitamin D Receptor|
|6) Get prescription for VDR activator|
|Vitamin D Receptor|
|7) Quercetin (flavonoid)||Vitamin D Receptor|
|8) Zinc is in the VDR||Vitamin D Receptor|
|9) Boron||Vitamin D Receptor ?, |
|10) Essential oils e.g. ginger, curcumin||Vitamin D Receptor|
|11) Progesterone||Vitamin D Receptor|
|12) Infrequent high concentration Vitamin D|
Increases the concentration gradient
|Vitamin D in the cells|
|13) Sulfroaphone and perhaps sulfur||Vitamin D Receptor|
Note: If you are not feeling enough benefit from Vitamin D, you might try increasing VDR activation. You might feel the benefit within days of adding one or more of the above
Far healthier and stronger at age 72 due to supplements Includes 6 supplements which help the VDR
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||RCT|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||RCT|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||RCT|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||RCT|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||RCT|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||RCT|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||RCT|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||RCT|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
See other supplements and pregnancy
- Pregnancy and infants healthier with Omega-3 supplementation
- Typical pregnancy is now 39 weeks – Omega-3 and Vitamin D might restore it to full 40 weeks
- Pregnancy helped by Magnesium in many ways reducing both preterm and miscarriages
- Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy – many studies
- Preterm births are VERY costly – Feb 2017 contains the following cost-analysis
Assumptions: additional $50,000 per premature birth, $100 for education & supplements per pregnancy
|Cost of |
|Net savings after|
|Vitamin D |
(5,000 IU avg)
|Vitamin C |
reduces early rupture
Does not include additional savings to infant beyond the first year
such as reductions in Autism, MS, Respiratory Tract Infection, Asthma, Allergies
Does not include additional savings to mother
such as reduction in preeclampsia, miscarriage, gestational diabetes, depression
nor does it assign any costs for anguish of possible premie death, stillbirth, time off from work, job productivity
See Folic Acid in VitaminDWiki
- Folic acid reduces both premature births and neural tube defects – March 2017
- Vitamin D is 100X better than folic acid during pregnancy
See also preterm birth in VitaminDWiki
- Preterm birth 3X more likely if low vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Preterm birth rate reduced by vitamin D – 78 percent if non-white, 39 percent if white – July 2017
- Preterm birth has become the leading cause of infant mortality (vitamin D not mentioned) – JAMA June 2016
- Preterm birth rate reduced by 43 percent with adequate Vitamin D supplementation – meta-analysis Feb 2017
- Preterm birth 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016
- Preterm birth rates increased in 15 European countries – Oct 2013
See also miscarriage in VitaminDWiki
- Miscarriage in first trimester 2.5X more likely if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – July 2015
- Miscarriage 2 times more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2017 >10,000 miscarriages
- Search VitaminDWiki for MISCARRIAGE 302 pages as of June 2017
see VitaminDWiki Preterm Births reduced by Omega-3, Zinc, and Vitamin D – Aug 2019
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are associated to spontaneous preterm birth and maternal aspects
Gene, Volume 642, 5 February 2018, Pages 58–63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2017.10.087
N. Javorskia, b, C.A.D. Limaa, b, L.V.C. Silvac, S. Crovellaa, b, J. de Azêvedo Silvaa, b, ,
- This is a new report relating polymorphisms within VDR gene and prematurity's outcomes.
- Herein we correlate clinical characteristics and spontaneous preterm birth, according to the maternal VDR genotype.
- Detection of direct relationship between VDR recessive genotype and specific clinical aspects in women with SPTB.
Preterm birth (PTB) is featured by less than 37 weeks of gestational age or fewer than 259 days since the first day from the last menstrual period. Complications of PTB are the major cause of neonatal deaths, several factors are linked to PTB increased risk including immunological and genetics. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune response modulation and its action occurs through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which recently has been described as overexpressed in human placenta during the pregnancy. Herein we assessed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI (rs2228570 A > G) and Cdx-2 (rs11568820 T > C), within VDR, using TaqMan fluorogenic probes, and differential susceptibility to SPTB.
We assessed 104 pregnant women with SPTB and 85 women with normal birth in a Northeastern Brazilian population. Statistically significant differences for both SNPs where found when comparing allele and genotype frequencies in both groups: the T allele for rs2228570 and A allele for rs11568820 were significantly more frequent in SPTB group than in normal birth group (p = 0.000013 and p = 0.00466, respectively).
The rs11568820 A/A genotype was associated to clinical/demographic variables such as:
- premature birth (p = 0.007),
- neonate weight (p = 0.039),
- presence of infection during pregnancy (p = 0.011) and
- premature birth among multiparous (p = 0.015).
The rs2228570 T/T genotype associated with
- gestational diabetes mellitus (p = 0.044) and
- chorioamnionitis during pregnancy (p = 0.043).
In conclusion our findings indicate an association between polymorphisms FokI and Cdx-2 within VDR gene and SPTB, suggesting their involvement in the triggering of these syndromes.
PTB, Preterm birth; SPTB, Spontaneous preterm birth; PROM, Premature rupture of membranes; GDM, Gestational diabetes mellitus; VDR, Vitamin D receptor; TNF, Tumor necrosis factor; IL, interleukin; OR, Odds ratio; CI, Confidence interval
Publisher wants $36 for the PDF
Relationship between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and preterm birth. [Article in Chinese]
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016 Aug 20;36(9):1276-1280.
Cai W1, Shen XY, Zhu BP, Pan SL.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms at Fok I site and the risk of preterm birth for potential intervention of of preterm birth or threatened premature delivery.
METHODS: Fifty-seven women with preterm birth and 84 with full-term birth were included in this analysis. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to identify VDR gene Fok I genotypes.
RESULTS: No significant difference was found in age, D-dimer (DDI), fibrinogen (Fg), serum calcium (Ca2+), leukocyte count or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between the women in the preterm and full-term birth groups (P>0.05). The two groups differed significantly in the distribution of VDR gene Fok I site genotypes and allele frequency of F/F (P<0.05).The frequency of FF genotype was significantly higher in the preterm group than in the full-term group. Compared with Ff and ff genotypes, FF genotype was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (χ2=9.701, P=9.701, OR=3.320, 95% CI [1.560, 7.066]). In the preterm group, the maternal age, DDI, Fg, serum Ca2+, leukocyte count or HbA1c did not differ significantly between the genotypes (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: VDR gene Fok I site genotypes are related with preterm birth, and the FF genotype may serve as a potential risk factor for preterm birth.
Influence of Apa1 (rs7975232), Taq1 (rs731236) and Bsm1 (rs154410) polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor on preterm birth risk in the Polish population.
Ginekol Pol. 2016;87(11):763-768. doi: 10.5603/GP.2016.0084.
Baczyńska-Strzecha M1, Kalinka J.
1Department of Perinatology, 1st Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University in Lodz, Poland. m.baczynska at onet.eu.
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in the placenta and tissues related to the immune system occurrence of various variants of VDR may modify the effects of vitamin D on pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the parturients' Apa1, Taq1, and Bsm1 polymorphisms of the VDR and their combinations and the risk of preterm birth in the Polish population.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Determination of polymorphism for VDR was assayed using the RT-PCR method. 199 Caucasian women at childbirth were qualified:100 patients who had a spontaneous preterm birth and 99 patients who had a term birth.
Three separate genotypes of the Apa1, Taq1, and Bsm1 polymorphisms were detected. No significant differences in the frequency of particular genotypes in the compared groups were found. Some of the genotype combinations were significantly more frequent in the preterm group - the bb/AA/TT genotype (28.0% vs. 10.1%; p = 0.0013) and the BB/aa/tt genotype (14.0% vs. 4.04% p = 0.0277). The Bb/AA/Tt and the BB/Aa/tt genotypes were found only in the control group (16.1% and 7.0% of patients, respectively). The bb/aa/TT was significantly more frequent in the control group (2.0% vs. 11.1%; p = 0,0207).
Two genotype combinations reduced the risk of preterm birth - the
- Bb/AA/Tt genotype by 94% (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.002-0.885, p = 0.041) and the
- BB/Aa/tt genotype by 98% (OR = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.001-0.838, p = 0.039).
Our result suggests that there may be a relationship between certain VDR genotype combinations and the risk of preterm birth. Further research is needed in order to substantiate this finding.
VITAMIN D RECEPTOR (VDR) GENE POLYMORPHISM AND MATERNAL VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN INDIAN WOMEN WITH PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research / academic sciences, Vol 10, Issue 9, 2017
HITESH V PATEL1*, NAYANA H PATEL2, NILOFAR R SODAGAR2
department of Biochemistry, Shri A. N. Patel PG Institute, Sardar Patel University, Anand - 388 001, Gujarat, India. department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Akanksha Hospital & Research Institute, Anand - 387 310, Gujarat, India. Email: hvphitesh at rediffmail.com
Objective: Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of high infant mortality and long-term disability in young children worldwide. Array of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes linked with vitamin D level and its associated vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. We undertook this study to investigate the association between VDR gene polymorphism with vitamin D deficiency and PTB in West Indian pregnant women.
Methods: A total of 72 women with PTB and 138 healthy mothers with uncomplicated normal delivery were selected from different regions of Gujarat, India. FokI and TaqI single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of VDR gene determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Vitamin D level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Result: ff genotype (29.17% vs. 10.87%, p=0.002) and f allele (49.31% vs. 35.51%, p=0.006) frequency distributions of VDR FokI showed significantly (odds ratio=0.566, 95% confidence interval=0.368-0.870, p=0.006) higher in women with preterm delivery than in control full term group. Genotype frequency of VDR TaqI showed no significant difference between preterm group and control.
Conclusion: These results confirmed that women carrying ff genotype of FokI gene had significantly higher risk for vitamin D deficiency which enhances the risk of prematurity than women carrying FF genotype in West Indian women.
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