J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 May;113(5):643-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.12.011. Epub 2013 Feb 13.
Weishaar T, jtw2117 at columbia.edu, Vergili JM.
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BACKGROUND: In human beings, dark skin requires more exposure to ultraviolet light to synthesize the same amount of vitamin D as lighter skin. It is has been repeatedly shown that at the latitude of the United States there are vitamin D disparities related to skin color. Although inadequate vitamin D status and health disparities have been associated with many of the same diseases, neither nutrition policy nor public health policy in the United States currently recognizes any role at all for vitamin D as a determinant of health disparities.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between health, skin color, and vitamin D nutriture in the US population.
DESIGN: The design is cross-sectional, correlational, and can be generalized to the population of the United States.
PARTICIPANTS: We used data from 12,505 (unweighted) subjects (3,402 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,143 Mexican Americans, and 5,960 non-Hispanic whites), aged 13 years or older, from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-rated health, a repeatedly validated indicator of objective health status, was used as a continuous measure of health.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Using software appropriate for the complex survey design of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the study consisted of six regression models, one predicting vitamin D status and five predicting self-rated health.
RESULTS: Controlling for the covariates sex, interview language, country of birth, tobacco use, age, body mass index, and leisure exercise as well as the socioeconomic variables education and family income, remaining disparities in self-rated health are greatly reduced or eliminated by controlling for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that socioeconomic factors are the strongest determinant of skin-color based health disparities in the US population, but that it may not be possible to eliminate health disparities in the United States without eliminating the skin-color-related disparities in vitamin D nutriture.
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Eur J Nutr. 2013 Apr;52(3):1115-25. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0421-6. Epub 2012 Aug 10.
Luxwolda MF, Kuipers RS, Kema IP, van der Veer E, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Muskiet FA.
Laboratory Medicine, Room Y 3.181, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands. mfluxwolda at hotmail.com
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PURPOSE:Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome.
METHODS:We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA) and Hadzabe (HA) with traditional life styles and low fish intakes, and people from Same (SA; intermediate fish), Sengerema (SE; high fish), and Ukerewe (UK; high fish). Samples derived from non-pregnant adults (MA, HA, SE), pregnant women (MA, SA, SE), mother-infant couples at delivery (UK), infants at delivery and their lactating mothers at 3 days (MA, SA, SE), and lactating mothers at 3 months postpartum (SA, SE). Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (RBC-DHA) was determined as a proxy for fish intake.
RESULTS:The mean ± SD 25(OH)D of non-pregnant adults and cord serum were 106.8 ± 28.4 and 79.9 ± 26.4 nmol/L, respectively. Pregnancy, delivery, ethnicity (which we used as a proxy for sunlight exposure), RBC-DHA, and age were the determinants of 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D increased slightly with age. RBC-DHA was positively related to 25(OH)D, notably 25(OH)D2. Pregnant MA (147.7 vs. 118.3) and SE (141.9 vs. 89.0) had higher 25(OH)D than non-pregnant counterparts (MA, SE). Infant 25(OH)D at delivery in Ukerewe was about 65 % of maternal 25(OH)D.
CONCLUSIONS:Our ancient 25(OH)D amounted to about 115 nmol/L and sunlight exposure, rather than fish intake, was the principal determinant. The fetoplacental unit was exposed to high 25(OH)D, possibly by maternal vitamin D mobilization from adipose tissue, reduced insulin sensitivity, trapping by vitamin D-binding protein, diminished deactivation, or some combination.
Short url = http://is.gd/vitD_race
- all items in Dark Skin category
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- Dark-skinned hunter-gatherers may generate 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily - June 2016
- Black women and vitamin D: Nigeria 26 ng, Chicago 12 ng – April 2013
- Vitamin D levels of blacks are lower and more skewed (non gausian) the further from equator – July 2014
- Race vs vitamin D level - Veith May 2011
- Nigerian albinos have vitamin D levels of 96 ng – Oct 2019
- Low vitamin D is a risk factor for vascular diseases in African Americans - Aug 2012
- Differences in black and non-black mortality and vitamin D – Oct 2012
- Forearm fracture 3.5X more often in black children with low levels of vitamin D – Sept 2012
- 98 percent of black women had less than 20 ng of vitamin D – July 2012
- Half of the US will be people of color – wonder how many will be vitamin D deficient
- Black Sudanese children 350X more likely to have rickets than other Australians – April 2012
- Skin color and vitamin D – Jablonski – Spring 2012
- Dark Skinned adults need more than 45 minutes of UK summer sun daily – June 2013
- Increase in Vitamin D deficiency with weight and skin darkness – chart – March 2016
- Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D which has many charts, such as the following
Blacks in the US 10X more likely to be vitamin D deficient ( < 17.8 ng)This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)
ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads 14508 Vitamin_D_status_indicators_in_indigenous_populati.pdf admin 31 Oct, 2020 13:11 418.07 Kb 80 14507 weishaar2013 Histogram dark skin vs Vitamin D sci-hub.pdf admin 31 Oct, 2020 13:02 1.16 Mb 66
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