J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 May;113(5):643-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.12.011. Epub 2013 Feb 13.
Weishaar T, jtw2117 at columbia.edu, Vergili JM.
Download the PDF from sci-hub via VitaminDWiki
BACKGROUND: In human beings, dark skin requires more exposure to ultraviolet light to synthesize the same amount of vitamin D as lighter skin. It is has been repeatedly shown that at the latitude of the United States there are vitamin D disparities related to skin color. Although inadequate vitamin D status and health disparities have been associated with many of the same diseases, neither nutrition policy nor public health policy in the United States currently recognizes any role at all for vitamin D as a determinant of health disparities.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between health, skin color, and vitamin D nutriture in the US population.
DESIGN: The design is cross-sectional, correlational, and can be generalized to the population of the United States.
PARTICIPANTS: We used data from 12,505 (unweighted) subjects (3,402 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,143 Mexican Americans, and 5,960 non-Hispanic whites), aged 13 years or older, from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-rated health, a repeatedly validated indicator of objective health status, was used as a continuous measure of health.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Using software appropriate for the complex survey design of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the study consisted of six regression models, one predicting vitamin D status and five predicting self-rated health.
RESULTS: Controlling for the covariates sex, interview language, country of birth, tobacco use, age, body mass index, and leisure exercise as well as the socioeconomic variables education and family income, remaining disparities in self-rated health are greatly reduced or eliminated by controlling for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that socioeconomic factors are the strongest determinant of skin-color based health disparities in the US population, but that it may not be possible to eliminate health disparities in the United States without eliminating the skin-color-related disparities in vitamin D nutriture.
- US Department of Health and Human Services . Healthy People 2020 . http://www.healthypeople.gov/ Accessed January 15, 2011
- Shavers VL . Measurement of socioeconomic status in health disparities research . J Natl Med Assoc . 2007;99(9):1013–1023
- Adler NE , Rehkopf DH . US disparities in health: Descriptions, causes, and mechanisms . Annu Rev Public Health . 2008;29:235–252
- Xanthos C , Treadwell HM , Holden KB . Social determinants of health among African-American men . J Mens Health . 2010;7(1):11–19
- Murray FG . Pigmentation, sunlight, and nutritional disease . Am Anthropol . 1934;36(3):438–445
- Loomis WF . Skin-pigment regulation of vitamin-D biosynthesis in man . Science . 1967;157(3788):501–506
- Jablonski NG , Chaplin G . The evolution of human skin coloration . J Hum Evol . 2000;39(1):57–106
- Jablonski NG . The evolution of human skin and skin color . Annu Rev Anthropol . 2004;33:585–623
- Chaplin G , Jablonski NG . Vitamin D and the evolution of human depigmentation . Am J Phys Anthropol . 2009;139(4):451–461
- Yuen AWC , Jablonski NG . Vitamin D: In the evolution of human skin colour . Med Hypotheses . 2010;74(1):39–44
- Maclaughlin JA , Anderson RR , Holick MF . Spectral character of sunlight modulates photosynthsis of previtamin-D3 and its photoisomers in human skin . Science . 1982;216(4549):1001–1003
- Johnson FS , Mo T , Green AES . Average latitudinal variation in ultraviolet-radiation at earth's surface . Photochem Photobiol . 1976;23(3):179–188
- Luxwolda MF , Kuipers RS , Kema IP , Janneke Dijck-Brouwer DA , Muskiet FA . Traditionally living populations in East Africa have a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 115 nmol/L . Br J Nutr . 2012;1–5
- Haddad JG . Competitive protein-binding radioassay for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1971;33(6):992–995
- Morton JP , Iqbal Z , Drust B , Burgess D , Close GL , Brukner PD . Seasonal variation in vitamin D status in professional soccer players of the English Premier League . Appl Physiol Nutr Metab . 2012;37(4):798–802
- Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board . Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D . Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011;
- Scragg R . Seasonality of cardiovascular-disease mortality and the possible protective effect of UV-radiation . Int J Epidemiol . 1981;10(4):337–341
- Rostand SG . Ultraviolet light may contribute to geographic and racial blood pressure differences . Hypertension . 1997;30(2):150–156
- Scragg R , Sowers M , Bell C . Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ethnicity, and blood pressure in the third national health and nutrition examination survey . Am J Hypertens . 2007;20(7):713–719
- Melamed ML , Astor B , Michos ED , Hostetter TH , Powe NR , Muntner P . 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, race, and the progression of kidney disease . J Am Soc Nephrol . 2009;20(12):2631–2639
- Fuller KE . Health disparities: Reframing the problem . Med Sci Monit . 2003;9(3):SR9–SR15
- Harris SS . Vitamin D and African Americans . J Nutr . 2006;136(4):1126–1129
- Bibuld D . Health disparities and vitamin D . Clin Rev Bone Min Metab . 2009;7(1):63–76
- Grant WB , Peiris AN . Possible role of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in black-white health disparities in the United States . J Am Med Dir Assoc . 2010;11(9):617–628
- Egan KM , Signorello LB , Munro HM , Hargreaves MK , Hollis BW , Blot WJ . Vitamin D insufficiency among African-Americans in the southeastern United States: Implications for cancer disparities (United States) . Cancer Causes Control . 2008;19(5):527–535
- Ginde AA , Liu MC , Camargo CA . Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004 . Arch Intern Med . 2009;169(6):626–632
- Peiris AN , Bailey BA , Peiris P , Copeland RJ , Manning T . Race and vitamin D status and monitoring in male veterans . J Natl Med Assoc . 2011;103(6):492–497
- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. 2001-2006 . http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm Accessed September 26, 2011
- Idler EL , Benyamini Y . Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies . J Health Social Behav . 1997;38(1):21–37
- Miilunpalo S , Vuori I , Oja P , Pasanen M , Urponen H . Self-rated health status as a health measure: The predictive value of self-reported health status on the use of physician services and on mortality in the working-age population . J Clin Epidemiol . 1997;50(5):517–528
- Benyamini Y , Idler EL . Community studies reporting association between self-rated health and mortality—Additional studies, 1995 to 1998 . Res Aging . 1999;21(3):392–401
- Nelson DE , Holtzman D , Bolen J , Stanwyck CA , Mack KA . Reliability and validity of measures from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) . Soz Praventivmed . 2001;46:S3–S42
- US Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics . Analytical note for NHANES 2000-2006 and NHANES III (1988-1994) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D analysis . www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes3/VitaminD_analyticnote.pdf Accessed November 19, 2010
- Lumley T . Complex Surveys: A Guide to Analysis Using R . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2010;
- Lumley T . Analysis of complex survey samples . J Stat Software . 2004;9(1):1–19
- US Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics . NHANES analytic and reporting guidelines 2005-2006 . http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_03_04/nhanes_analytic_guidelines_dec_2005.pdf Accessed October 2, 2009
- Holick MF . Vitamin D deficiency . N Engl J Med . 2007;357(3):266–281
- Holick MF , Binkley NC , Bischoff-Ferrari HA , et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2011;96(7):1911–1930
- Terry L . Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. Public Health Service Publication No. 1103 . Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 1964;
- Looker AC , Pfeiffer CM , Lacher DA , Schleicher RL , Picciano MF , Yetley EA . Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004 . Am J Clin Nutr . 2008;88(6):1519–1527
- Jylha M , Guralnik JM , Ferrucci L , Jokela J , Heikkinen E . Is self-rated health comparable across cultures and genders? . J Gerontol Series B-Psychol Sci Soc Sci . 1998;53(suppl 3):S144–S152
- Dowd JB , Zajacova A . Does self-rated health mean the same thing across socioeconomic groups? (Evidence from biomarker data) . Ann Epidemiol . 2010;20(10):743–749
- Morris HA , Anderson PH . Autocrine and paracrine actions of vitamin D . Clin Biochem Rev Austral Assoc Clin Biochem . 2010;31(4):129–138
Eur J Nutr. 2013 Apr;52(3):1115-25. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0421-6. Epub 2012 Aug 10.
Luxwolda MF, Kuipers RS, Kema IP, van der Veer E, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Muskiet FA.
Laboratory Medicine, Room Y 3.181, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands. mfluxwolda at hotmail.com
Download the PDF from sci-hub via VitaminDWiki
PURPOSE:Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome.
METHODS:We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA) and Hadzabe (HA) with traditional life styles and low fish intakes, and people from Same (SA; intermediate fish), Sengerema (SE; high fish), and Ukerewe (UK; high fish). Samples derived from non-pregnant adults (MA, HA, SE), pregnant women (MA, SA, SE), mother-infant couples at delivery (UK), infants at delivery and their lactating mothers at 3 days (MA, SA, SE), and lactating mothers at 3 months postpartum (SA, SE). Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (RBC-DHA) was determined as a proxy for fish intake.
RESULTS:The mean ± SD 25(OH)D of non-pregnant adults and cord serum were 106.8 ± 28.4 and 79.9 ± 26.4 nmol/L, respectively. Pregnancy, delivery, ethnicity (which we used as a proxy for sunlight exposure), RBC-DHA, and age were the determinants of 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D increased slightly with age. RBC-DHA was positively related to 25(OH)D, notably 25(OH)D2. Pregnant MA (147.7 vs. 118.3) and SE (141.9 vs. 89.0) had higher 25(OH)D than non-pregnant counterparts (MA, SE). Infant 25(OH)D at delivery in Ukerewe was about 65 % of maternal 25(OH)D.
CONCLUSIONS:Our ancient 25(OH)D amounted to about 115 nmol/L and sunlight exposure, rather than fish intake, was the principal determinant. The fetoplacental unit was exposed to high 25(OH)D, possibly by maternal vitamin D mobilization from adipose tissue, reduced insulin sensitivity, trapping by vitamin D-binding protein, diminished deactivation, or some combination.
Short url = http://is.gd/vitD_race
- all items in Dark Skin category
- Africa category listing has
28 items along with related searches
- Dark-skinned hunter-gatherers may generate 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily - June 2016
- Black women and vitamin D: Nigeria 26 ng, Chicago 12 ng – April 2013
- Vitamin D levels of blacks are lower and more skewed (non gausian) the further from equator – July 2014
- Race vs vitamin D level - Veith May 2011
- Nigerian albinos have vitamin D levels of 96 ng – Oct 2019
- Low vitamin D is a risk factor for vascular diseases in African Americans - Aug 2012
- Differences in black and non-black mortality and vitamin D – Oct 2012
- Forearm fracture 3.5X more often in black children with low levels of vitamin D – Sept 2012
- 98 percent of black women had less than 20 ng of vitamin D – July 2012
- Half of the US will be people of color – wonder how many will be vitamin D deficient
- Black Sudanese children 350X more likely to have rickets than other Australians – April 2012
- Skin color and vitamin D – Jablonski – Spring 2012
- Dark Skinned adults need more than 45 minutes of UK summer sun daily – June 2013
- Increase in Vitamin D deficiency with weight and skin darkness – chart – March 2016
- Histogram of 60,000 patients 2018
- Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D which has many charts, such as the following
Blacks in the US 10X more likely to be vitamin D deficient ( < 17.8 ng)This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)Skin - Dark
450 Top news 884 Africa 28
ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads 14508 Vitamin_D_status_indicators_in_indigenous_populati.pdf admin 31 Oct, 2020 13:11 418.07 Kb 250 14507 weishaar2013 Histogram dark skin vs Vitamin D sci-hub.pdf admin 31 Oct, 2020 13:02 1.16 Mb 293
- Africa category listing has