Table of contents
- The association between low vitamin D and depressive disorders
- 8% less likely to be depressed for 10ng higher level of vitamin D - Meta-analysis
- See also VitaminDWiki
- See also web
Molecular Psychiatry , (9 April 2013) | doi:10.1038/mp.2013.36
Y Milaneschi, W Hoogendijk, P Lips, A C Heijboer, R Schoevers, A M van Hemert, A T F Beekman, J H Smit and B W J H Penninx
It has been hypothesized that hypovitaminosis D is associated with depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. We investigated the association between depressive disorders and related clinical characteristics with blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a large cohort.
The sample consisted of participants (aged 18–65 years) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) with a current (N=1102) or remitted (N=790) depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymia) defined according to DSM-IV criteria, and healthy controls (N=494).
Serum levels of 25(OH)D measured and analyzed in multivariate analyses adjusting for sociodemographics, sunlight, urbanization, lifestyle and health. Of the sample, 33.6% had deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D (<50 nmol l−1). As compared with controls, lower 25(OH)D levels were found in participants with current depression (P=0.001, Cohen’s d=0.21), particularly in those with the most severe symptoms (P=0.001, Cohen’s d=0.44).
In currently depressed persons, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with symptom severity (β=−0.19, s.e.=0.07, P=0.003) suggesting a dose-response gradient, and with risk (relative risk=0.90, 95% confidence interval=0.82–0.99, P=0.03) of having a depressive disorders at 2-year follow-up.
This large cohort study indicates that low levels of 25(OH)D were associated to the presence and severity of depressive disorder suggesting that hypovitaminosis D may represent an underlying biological vulnerability for depression. Future studies should elucidate whether the highly prevalent hypovitaminosis D could be cost-effectively treated as part of preventive or treatment interventions for depression.
end of free access
CLICK HERE to Rent the article from publisher for $5
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and the risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis
J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):447-55. doi: 10.1007/s12603-012-0418-0.
Ju SY, Lee YJ, Jeong SN.
S.-Y. Ju, Department of Family Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, 62 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, Korea, Zip code: 150-713, Tel: +82-2-1377-2247 / Fax; +82-2-1377-1712, E-mail: kolpos at daum.net.
Objective: No quantitative systematic review or meta-analysis of population-based epidemiological studies has been conducted to assess the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the risk of dpression. This study aimed to summarize the current evidence from cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies that have evaluated the association between 25(OH)D levels and the risk of depression.
Methods: Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases through April 2012. Cross-sectional and cohort studies that reported adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of interest were included. The reported risk estimates for 25(OH)D categories were recalculated, employing a comprehensive trend estimation from summarized dose-response data. A pooled OR was calculated separately for cross-sectional and cohort studies using random-effects models.
Results: In the meta-analysis, 25(OH)D levels were significantly inversely associated with depression in 5 of 11 case-control studies and 2 of 5 cohort studies.
The pooled estimate of the adjusted OR of depression in 11 cross-sectional studies (n = 43,137) was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94-0.99, I2 = 63%) for a 10 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D levels.
The 5 included cohort studies comprised 12,648 participants, primarily elderly individuals, whose serum 25(OH)D levels were measured, and 2,663 experienced depression events during follow-up.
The pooled adjusted OR of depression was 0.92 (95% CI = 0.87-0.98, I2 = 50%) for a 10 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D levels.
Conclusions: Our results indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and the risk of depression.
Further studies are warranted to establish whether this association is causal.
- Doris A, Ebmeier K, Shajahan P (1999) Depressive illness. Lancet 354:1369–1375. CrossRef
- Broadhead WE, Blazer DG, George LK, Tse CK (1990) Depression, disability days, and days lost from work in a prospective epidemiologic survey. JAMA 264:2524–2528. CrossRef
- Hays RD, Wells KB, Sherbourne CD, Rogers W, Spritzer K (1995) Functioning and well-being outcomes of patients with depression compared with chronic general medical illnesses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:11–19. CrossRef
- Whooley MA, Browner WS (1998) Association between depressive symptoms and mortality in older women. Study of osteoporotic fractures research group. Arch Intern Med 158:2129–2135. CrossRef
- Evans DL, Charney DS, Lewis L, Golden RN, Gorman JM, Krishnan KR, Nemeroff CB, Bremner JD, Carney RM, Coyne JC, Delong MR, Frasure-Smith N, Glassman AH, Gold PW, Grant I, Gwyther L, Ironson G, Johnson RL, Kanner AM, Katon WJ, Kaufmann PG, Keefe FJ, Ketter T, Laughren TP, Leserman J, Lyketsos CG, McDonald WM, McEwen BS, Miller AH, Musselman D, O’Connor C, Petitto JM, Pollock BG, Robinson RG, Roose SP, Rowland J, Sheline Y, Sheps DS, Simon G, Spiegel D, Stunkard A, Sunderland T, Tibbits P, Jr., Valvo WJ (2005) Mood disorders in the medically ill: Scientific review and recommendations. Biol Psychiatry 58:175–189. CrossRef
- Fenton WS, Stover ES (2006) Mood disorders: Cardiovascular and diabetes comorbidity. Curr Opin Psychiatry 19:421–427. CrossRef
- Jacka FN, Maes M, Pasco JA, Williams LJ, Berk M (2012) Nutrient intakes and the common mental disorders in women. J Affect Disord. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.018.
- Skarupski KA, Tangney C, Li H, Ouyang B, Evans DA, Morris MC (2010) Longitudinal association of vitamin b-6, folate, and vitamin b-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time. Am J Clin Nutr 92:330–335. CrossRef
- Sarris J, Schoendorfer N, Kavanagh DJ (2009) Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: A review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments. Nutr Rev 67:125–131. CrossRef
- Lips P (2006) Vitamin d physiology. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 92:4–8. CrossRef
- Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, Wion D (2002) New clues about vitamin d functions in the nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab 13:100–105. CrossRef
- Ganji V, Milone C, Cody MM, McCarty F, Wang YT (2010) Serum vitamin d concentrations are related to depression in young adult us population: The third national health and nutrition examination survey. Int Arch Med 3:29. CrossRef
- Wilkins CH, Sheline YI, Roe CM, Birge SJ, Morris JC (2006) Vitamin d deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:1032–1040. CrossRef
- Hoang MT, Defina LF, Willis BL, Leonard DS, Weiner MF, Brown ES (2011) Association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and depression in a large sample of healthy adults: The cooper center longitudinal study. Mayo Clin Proc 86:1050–1055. CrossRef
- Stewart R, Hirani V (2010) Relationship between vitamin d levels and depressive symptoms in older residents from a national survey population. Psychosom Med 72:608–612. CrossRef
- Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, Moher D, Becker BJ, Sipe TA, Thacker SB (2000) Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: A proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (moose) group. JAMA 283:2008–2012. CrossRef
- Sanderson S, Tatt ID, Higgins JP (2007) Tools for assessing quality and susceptibility to bias in observational studies in epidemiology: A systematic review and annotated bibliography. Int J Epidemiol 36:666–676. CrossRef
- Panagioti M, Gooding PA, Tarrier N (2012) A meta-analysis of the association between posttraumatic stress disorder and suicidality: The role of comorbid depression. Compr Psychiatry.
- DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7:177–188. CrossRef
- Greenland S, Longnecker MP (1992) Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 135:1301–1309.
- Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327:557–560. CrossRef
- Jaddou HY, Batieha AM, Khader YS, Kanaan SH, El-Khateeb MS, Ajlouni KM (2012) Depression is associated with low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d among jordanian adults: Results from a national population survey. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 262:321–327. CrossRef
- Hauck Jr WW, Donner A (1977) Wald’s test as applied to hypotheses in logit analysis. J Am Stat Assoc: 851–853.
- Chan R, Chan D, Woo J, Ohlsson C, Mellstrom D, Kwok T, Leung P (2011) Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and psychological health in older chinese men in a cohort study. J Affect Disord 130:251–259. CrossRef
- Milaneschi Y, Shardell M, Corsi AM, Vazzana R, Bandinelli S, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and depressive symptoms in older women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3225–3233. CrossRef
- Nanri A, Mizoue T, Matsushita Y, Poudel-Tandukar K, Sato M, Ohta M, Mishima N (2009) Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and depressive symptoms in japanese: Analysis by survey season. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:1444–1447. CrossRef
- Kjaergaard M, Joakimsen R, Jorde R (2011) Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels are associated with depression in an adult norwegian population. Psychiatry Res 190:221–225. CrossRef
- Zhao G, Ford ES, Li C, Balluz LS (2010) No associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and parathyroid hormone and depression among us adults. Br J Nutr 104:1696–1702. CrossRef
- Pan A, Lu L, Franco OH, Yu Z, Li H, Lin X (2009) Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin d in middle-aged and elderly chinese. J Affect Disord 118:240–243. CrossRef
- May HT, Bair TL, Lappe DL, Anderson JL, Horne BD, Carlquist JF, Muhlestein JB (2010) Association of vitamin d levels with incident depression among a general cardiovascular population. Am Heart J 159:1037–1043. CrossRef
- Lee DM, Tajar A, O’Neill TW, O’Connor DB, Bartfai G, Boonen S, Bouillon R, Casanueva FF, Finn JD, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Huhtaniemi IT, Kula K, Lean ME, Punab M, Silman AJ, Vanderschueren D, Wu FC, Pendleton N, group Es (2011) Lower vitamin d levels are associated with depression among communitydwelling european men. J Psychopharmacol 25:1320–1328. CrossRef
- Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, Shaw AC, Deraska DJ, Kitch BT, Vamvakas EC, Dick IM, Prince RL, Finkelstein JS (1998) Hypovitaminosis d in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med 338:777–783. CrossRef
- Malabanan A, Veronikis IE, Holick MF (1998) Redefining vitamin d insufficiency. Lancet 351:805–806. CrossRef
- Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B (2006) Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin d for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84:18–28.
- Holick MF (2006) High prevalence of vitamin d inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc 81:353–373. CrossRef
- Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Vieth R (2005) Estimates of optimal vitamin d status. Osteoporos Int 16:713–716. CrossRef
- Heaney RP, Recker RR, Grote J, Horst RL, Armas LA (2011) Vitamin d(3) is more potent than vitamin d(2) in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E447–452. CrossRef
- Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:1911–1930. CrossRef
- Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ (2003) Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77:204–210.
- Bertone-Johnson ER, Powers SI, Spangler L, Brunner RL, Michael YL, Larson JC, Millen AE, Bueche MN, Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Liu S, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Ockene JK, Ockene I, Manson JE (2011) Vitamin d intake from foods and supplements and depressive symptoms in a diverse population of older women. Am J Clin Nutr 94:1104–1112. CrossRef
- Houston DK, Cesari M, Ferrucci L, Cherubini A, Maggio D, Bartali B, Johnson MA, Schwartz GG, Kritchevsky SB (2007) Association between vitamin d status and physical performance: The inchianti study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62:440–446. CrossRef
- Thomas J, Anouti FA, Hasani SA, Abdel-Wareth L, Haq A (2011) Sunshine, sadness and seasonality: 25-hydroxyvitamin d, and depressive symptoms in the united arab emirates (uae). Int J Ment Health Promot 13:23–26. CrossRef
- Holick MF (2007) Vitamin d deficiency. N Engl J Med 357:266–281. CrossRef
- Humble MB (2010) Vitamin d, light and mental health. J Photochem Photobiol B 101:142–149. CrossRef
- McCann JC, Ames BN (2008) Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin d deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J 22:982–1001. CrossRef
- Kuningas M, Mooijaart SP, Jolles J, Slagboom PE, Westendorp RG, van Heemst D (2009) Vdr gene variants associate with cognitive function and depressive symptoms in old age. Neurobiol Aging 30:466–473. CrossRef
- Zittermann A (2003) Vitamin d in preventive medicine: Are we ignoring the evidence? Br J Nutr 89:552–572. CrossRef
- Mosekilde L (2005) Vitamin d and the elderly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 62:265–281. CrossRef
- Kessler RC (2002) The categorical versus dimensional assessment controversy in the sociology of mental illness. J Health Soc Behav 43:171–188. CrossRef
- Kraemer HC, Noda A, O’Hara R (2004) Categorical versus dimensional approaches to diagnosis: Methodological challenges. J Psychiatr Res 38:17–25. CrossRef
- Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Eisman JA, El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Josse RG, Lips P, Morales-Torres J (2009) Global vitamin d status and determinants of hypovitaminosis d. Osteoporos Int 20:1807–1820. CrossRef
- Lee CT, Yeh CJ, Lee MC, Lin HS, Chen VC, Hsieh MH, Yen CH, Lai TJ (2012) Leisure activity, mobility limitation and stress as modifiable risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: Results of a national longitudinal study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 54:e221–229. CrossRef
- Depression greatly reduced with higher levels of vitamin D – April 2014
- Fewest Google searches for Mental Health when there is lots of vitamin D from the sun – May 2013
- 2X more likely to be depressed if low vitamin D (cohort studies) - Meta-analysis Jan 2013
- Suicide 2X more likely with low vitamin D (in military) – Jan 2013
- Depression book talks about vitamin D - Nov 2012
- Hypothesis: Some Mental Illness could be treated or prevented with vitamin D
- Increased incidence of depression – perhaps due to lower vitamin D
- 99 percent of psychiatric population had less than 30 ng of vitamin D – June 2013
- Review of Vitamin D3 and depression in older adults (take 1000-2000 IU) – Sept 2013
- All items in category Winter Blues/Depression and Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Council
- Exercise for depression Cochraine Lib Sept 2013
Meta-analysis finds that exercise decreases depression - abstract does not mention outdoors exercise nor vitamin D
- Association Between Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Depression in a Large Sample of Healthy Adults: The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study Mayo, Nov 2011
Conclusion: We found that low vitamin D levels are associated with depressive symptoms, especially in persons with a history of depression.
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
- 10 Nutritional Deficiencies That Cause Depression and Mood Disorders Natural News Blogs Sept 2013
- Healthy Food Deficiency?
- Omega-3 Fatty Acids Deficiency:
- Vitamin D Deficiency:
- B-Vitamins Deficiency:
- Zinc , Folate, Chromium, and Iron Deficiencies:
- Iodine Deficiency:
- Amino Acids Deficiency:
Note: contrary to the title, they only listed 7 items. Magnesium was added by a reader
Note: Magnesium deficiency is also associated with low vitamin D and poor mental healthLow vitamin D and depression - Study and meta-analysis, April 2013
7875 visitors, last modified 19 Apr, 2015,