Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries.
PLoS One. 2015 Dec 4;10(12):e0144308. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144308.
Cuomo RE1,2, Garland CF3, Gorham ED3, Mohr SB3.
1Division of Global Health, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.
2Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America.
3Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.
There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented.
We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance.
To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia.
- Low UVB countries have higher leukemia rates – July 2011 previous study by similar authors - not compensated for low-level clouds
- Brain cancer in 175 countries related to low UVB and low vitamin D – Oct 2010 similar authors, behind paywall
- all items in Cancer- Leukemia - Vitamin D
- Breast Cancer vs latitude Gapminder on VitaminDWiki, Great smile curve
- Less sun means more disease -Grant, Holick, Cannell, et al Feb 2015
- Air Pollution reduces Vitamin D a large souuce of low level clouds = low UVB
- Air pollution reduces UV and thus vitamin D - Aug 2010
- Higher air pollution associated with 7 ng lower vitamin D levels – Aug 2013
- Cancer incidence in 87 countries is related to food, smoking, alcohol, GDP, and UVB - Jan 2014