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Effects of low vitamin D on pregnancy and neonate – review Jan 2015

Maternal–Fetal Impact of Vitamin D Deficiency: A Critical Review

Maternal and Child Health Journal, January 2015, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 94-101
Letícia Schwerz Weinert, Sandra Pinho Silveiro (Brazil)

VitaminDWiki Comment

Providing Vitamin D during pregnancy is a very ‘’low hanging fruit’’
It should provide quick and large return on investment to Health Maintenance Organizations.
A Clinical Trial (Dec 2014) to document the benefits of providing vitamin D during pregnancy
See Also VitaminDWiki

Image
Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D has the following summary

IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level CofactorsCalcium $*/month
200 Better bones for mom
with 600 mg of Calcium
6 ng/ml increase Not needed No effect $0.10
400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $0.20
2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $1
4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Should have
cofactors
< 750 mg $3
6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
Should have
cofactors
< 750 mg $4


Research into the extra-skeletal functions of vitamin D has been expanding in recent years. During pregnancy, maternal vitamin D status may be of concern because of the key role of this vitamin in fetal skeletal development and due to the association between hypovitaminosis D and adverse maternal–fetal outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript was to review the maternal–fetal impact of gestational vitamin D deficiency and the benefits of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase employing the following keywords: vitamin D deficiency, pregnancy, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and hypovitaminosis D. All relevant articles in English language published since 1980 were analysed by the two authors.
Neonatal complications derived from vitamin D deficiency include

  • low birth weight,
  • growth restriction, and
  • respiratory tract infection.

In the mother, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with

  • altered glucose homeostasis and
  • increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus,
  • pre-eclampsia, and
  • bacterial vaginosis.

However, the current state of the evidence is controversial for some other endpoints and the actual benefit of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy remains unclear.

Additional longitudinal studies may clarify the actual impact of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, and randomised trials are required to define the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence of adverse outcomes in the mother and infant.

Can be rented via DeepDyve

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