Vitamin D deficiency is a predictor of reduced survival in patients with heart failure; vitamin D supplementation improves outcome.
Eur J Heart Fail. 2012 Feb 3.
Gotsman I, Shauer A, Zwas DR, Hellman Y, Keren A, Lotan C, Admon D.
Heart Institute, Hadassah University Hospital, POB 12000, Jerusalem, Israel IL-91120.
AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent, global phenomenon. The prevalence in heart failure (HF) patients and its effect on outcome are less clear. We evaluated vitamin D levels and vitamin D supplementation in patients with HF and its effect on mortality.
METHODS AND RESULTS: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were evaluated in HF patients from a health maintenance organization (HMO), and compared them with those of the rest of the members of the HMO. Patients with HF (n = 3009) had a lower median 25(OH)D level compared with the control group (n = 46 825): 36.9 nmol/L (interquartile range 23.2-55.9) vs. 40.7 nmol/L (26.7-56.9), respectively, P < 0.00001.
The percentage of patients with vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <25 nmol/L] was higher in patients with HF compared with the control group (28% vs. 22%, P < 0.00001).
Only 8.8% of the HF patients had optimal 25(OH)D levels (?75 nmol/L). Median clinical follow-up was 518 days. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency was an independent predictor of increased mortality in patients with HF [hazard ratio (HR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.92, P < 0.001] and in the control group (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.48-2.46, P < 0.00001).
Vitamin D supplementation was independently associated with reduced mortality in HF patients (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.85, P < 0.0001).
Parameters associated with vitamin D deficiency in HF patients were
- decreased previous solar radiation exposure,
- body mass index,
- female gender,
- pulse, and
- decreased calcium and haemoglobin levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in HF patients and is a significant predictor of reduced survival.
Vitamin D supplementation was associated with improved outcome.
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- Without supplementation: start 333, finish 31 ==> 9% survival
- With supplementation start 458, finish 227 ==> 50% survival
Not a Random Controlled Trial: the doctors decided who should get the vitamin D supplementation (see PDF)
the data in the table does not seem to agree with the graph: sent an email July 2012 to the author
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