Handbook of Nutrition and Pregnancy pp 71-88 DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90988-2_4
Bruce W. Hollis, Carol L. Wagner
Infant-Child category starts with
- No consensus on MINIMUM International Units (IU) for healthy infant of normal weight
- 400 IU Vitamin D is no longer enough
Was OK in the past century, but D levels have been dropping for a great many reasons.
FDA doubled the vitamin D level in milk in July 2016
- No consensus: range is 600 to 1600 IU – based on many randomized controlled trials
- Fewer infants were vitamin D deficient when they got 800 IU – RCT Feb 2014
- 1600 IU was the conclusion of three JAMA studies
1000 IU recommended in France and Finland – 2013 - appears to be a good level
A recommended level may be agreed upon around the world by 2020
- 5X less mite allergy after add vitamin D
- Child bone fractures with low vitamin D were 55X more likely to need surgery
- 75 % of SIDS had low vitamin D
- Children stayed in ICU 3.5 days longer if low vitamin D – Dec 2015
- 5 out of 6 children who died in pediatric critical care unit had low vitamin D – May 2014
Having a good level of vitamin D cuts in half the amount of:
- Asthma, Chronic illness, Doctor visits, Allergies, infection
Respiratory Tract Infection, Growing pains, Bed wetting
Need even more IUs of vitamin D to get a good level if;
- Have little vitamin D: premie, twin, mother did not get much sun access
- Get little vitamin D: dark skin, little access to sun
- Vitamin D is consumed faster than normal due to sickness
- Older (need at least 100 IU/kilogram, far more if obese)
- Not get any vitamin D from formula (breast fed) or (fortified) milk
Note – formula does not even provide 400 IU of vitamin D daily
Infants-Children need Vitamin D
- Sun is great – well known for 1,000’s of years.
US govt (1934) even said infants should be out in the sun
- One country recommended 2,000 IU daily for decades – with no known problems
- As with adults, infants and children can have loading doses and rarely need tests
- Daily dose appears to be best, but monthly seems OK
- Vitamin D is typically given to infants in the form of drops
big difference in taste between brands
can also use water-soluable form of vitamin D in milk, food, juice,
- Infants have evolved to get a big boost of vitamin D immediately after birth
Colostrum has 3X more vitamin D than breast milk - provided the mother has any vitamin D to spare
- 100 IU per kg of infant July 2011, Poland etc.
More than 100 IU/kg is probably better
Getting Vitamin D into infants
Many infants reject vitamin D drops, even when put on nipple
I speculate that the rejection is due to one or more of: additives, taste, and oils.
Infants have a hard time digesting oils, 1999 1997 and palm oils W.A. Price 1 2 3
Coconut oil, such as in D-Drops, is digested by infants. 1, 2 3
Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D has NO additves, taste, oil
One capsule of 50,000 Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D could be stirred into monthly formula
this would result in ~1,600 IUs per day for infant, and higher dose with weight/age/formula consumption
578 items in the category Infant/Child See also
- breastfed 962 items as of Sept 2017
- "BIRTH DEFECTS" 172 items as of July 2016
- Stunting OR “low birth weight” OR LBW OR preemie OR preemies OR preterm 1940 items as of Oct 2018
- "SUDDEN INFANT DEATH" OR SIDS 177 items as of Nov 2018
- Overview of Rickets and Vitamin D
- Youth category listing has
143 items along with related searches
How much Vitamin D
- 400 IU of Vitamin D provided no benefit to children (not a surprise) – RCT March 2018
- Preemies need 1,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Sept 2017
- Premature infants (30 weeks) who got 800-1000 IU of vitamin D were much healthier – March 2017
- 10 Reasons why children no longer have healthy levels of Vitamin D
- Systematic review of effective Vitamin D interventions in children - perhaps 2019
- Vitamin D supplementation by only 1 in 60 US Children – JAMA June 2018
- Reasons for children having low vitamin D (proposed by 10 societies) - May 2018
- Third study found that Infants needed 1600 IU of vitamin D – JAMA RCT May 2013
Non-daily dosing of infant is as good or perhaps better
- Monthly 120,000 IU of Vitamin D during lactation worked well - May 2016
- Vitamin D required for breastfed infants – daily or monthly, infant or mother – Jan 2017
- Neonate loading dose of 30,000 IU vitamin D helped a lot – May 2014
- Somewhat similar to Vitamin K loading dose at birth and giving a child Vitamin A every 6 months
PDF is available free at Sci-Hub 10.1007/978-3-319-90988-2_4
While much has been written about the importance of vitamin D during the lifespan, its greatest impact appears to be during pregnancy and lactation, affecting not only the mother but her growing fetus and, later, growing infant. Controversy surrounds the daily requirement for vitamin D and what constitutes sufficiency during these critical periods. A growing body of literature supports the importance of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy to achieve a total circulating 25(OH)D concentration of at least 40 ng/mL, the point at which the conversion of 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D is optimized. This level is associated with a lower risk of comorbidities of pregnancy and better outcomes. During lactation, a maternal daily dose of 6000 IU vitamin D/d is effective and safe at elevating milk vitamin D delivery to the recipient infant in such a manner that those infants do not require an additional vitamin D supplement. These infants also achieve a comparable total circulating 25(OH)D concentration compared to infants supplemented with 400 IU/day. Further, past data suggesting that vitamin D is a teratogenic compound are not well supported in the extant literature. To the contrary, significant amounts of vitamin D are required during pregnancy to protect the mother and fetus and impart genomic imprinting on the fetus to ensure long-term health. With enhanced knowledge about vitamin D’s role as a preprohormone, it is clear that recommendations for supplementation should mirror what is clinically relevant and evidence-based.
- The function of vitamin D during pregnancy is diverse, involving genomic alteration that is involved in decreasing birth complications and infant asthma development.
- The vitamin D requirement during pregnancy and lactation has been greatly underestimated.
- Women should take 4000 IU/d vitamin D prior and during pregnancy.
- Lactating mothers should consume 6000 IU/d vitamin D to satisfy her requirement as well as the requirement of her nursing infant.
Obstetrical “Paranoia” with Regard to Vitamin D Administration During Pregnancy
We refer to this type of thinking as “medical lore”; however, in this particular case because it carries forth into current medical care, we view it with serious concern. It happens when medical students are taught something that is based on outdated data that have been carried through to the present. This is absolutely the case with the use of vitamin D during pregnancy. Why is this?
Because of the British experience with idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia attributed to hypervitaminosis D, a terrible inaccurate association occurred that had a profound effect on the potential of vitamin D supplementation, not only during infancy but also during pregnancy. In 1963, Black and Bonham-Carter  recognized that elfin facies observed in patients with severe idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia resembled the peculiar facies observed in patients with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) syndrome. Shortly thereafter, Garcia et al.  documented the occurrence of idiopathic hypercalcemia in an infant with SAS who also had peripheral pulmonary stenosis, mental retardation, elfin facies, and an elevated blood concentration of vitamin D. This is an interesting observation because in 1964, when the article was published, there were no quantitative means of assessing circulating concentrations of vitamin D. In fact, at that time, it was not even proven that vitamin D was further metabolized within the body. By 1967, vitamin D was viewed by the medical community as the cause of SAS syndrome [26, 27]. As a result of the theory that maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy caused SAS syndrome , animal models were developed to show that toxic excesses of vitamin D during pregnancy would result in SAS [29, 30]. In these earlier cases (22), vitamin D had nothing to do with the etiology of SAS. What was described as vitamin D-induced SAS syndrome is now known as Williams Syndrome [31, 32]. Unfortunately, vitamin D intake during pregnancy is still associated with SAS.
Williams Syndrome is a severe genetic affliction related to elastin gene disruption  that is caused by deletion of elastin and contiguous genes on chromosome 7 g 11.23. This syndrome is characterized by multiorgan involvement (including SAS), dysmorphic facial features, and a distinctive cognitive profile . Such patients often exhibit abnormal vitamin D metabolism, which makes them susceptible to bouts of idiopathic hypercalcemia . This relationship was suspected as early as 1976 . Subsequently, it was shown that children with Williams Syndrome exhibit an exaggerated response of circulating 25(OH)D to orally administered vitamin D . Thus, the fear of vitamin D-induced SAS is based on studies that are no longer valid yet continue to be cited and feared, and thus impact treatment.
- Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK, et al. The 2011 dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D: what dietetics practitioners need to know. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(4):524-7.
- Brannon PM, Picciano MF. Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation in humans. Annu Rev Nutr. 2011;31:89-115.
- Abrams SA. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(10):2338-40.
- Tian XQ, Chen TC, Matsuoka LY, Wortsman J, Holick MF. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the conversion of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 in human skin. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(20):14888-92.
- Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher B, Dawson-Hughes B, Garland C, Heaney R, et al. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:649-50.
- Hollis B. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D. J Nutr. 2005;135:317-22.
- Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911-30.
- Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Clinical review: the role of the parent compound vitamin D with respect to metabolism and function: why clinical dose intervals can affect clinical outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(12):4619-28.
- Bikle DD, Gee E, Halloran B, Haddad JG. Free 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in serum from normal subjects, pregnant subjects, and subjects with liver disease. J Clin Invest. 1984;74(6):1966-71.
- Kumar R, Cohen WR, Silva P, Epstein FH. Elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plasma levels in normal human pregnancy and lactation. J Clin Invest. 1979;63(2):342-4.
- Lund B, Selnes A. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in pregnancy and lactation. Acta Endocrinol. 1979;92(2):330-5.
- Steichen J, Tsang R, Gratton T, Hamstra A, DeLuca H. Vitamin D homeostasis in the perinatal period: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in maternal, cord, and neonatal blood. N Engl J Med. 1980;302(6):315-9.
- Seino Y, Ishida M, Yamaoka K, Ishii T, Hiejima T, Ikehara C, et al. Serum calcium regulating hormones in the perinatal period. Calcif Tissue Int. 1982;34(2):131-5.
- Heaney RP, Armas LA, Shary JR, Bell NH, Binkley N, Hollis BW. 25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3: relation to circulating vitamin D3 under various input conditions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(6):1738-42.
- Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(10):2341-57.
- Walker VP, Zhang X, Rastegar I, Liu PT, Hollis BW, Adams JS, et al. Cord blood vitamin D status impacts innate immune responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(6):1835-43.
- Eichholzer M, Platz EA, Bienstock JL, Monsegue D, Akereyeni F, Hollis BW, et al. Racial variation in vitamin D cord blood concentration in white and black male neonates. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24(1):91-8.
- Kovacs CS. The role of vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: insights from animal models and clinical studies. Annu Rev Nutr. 2012;32(1):97-123.
- Carneiro RM, Prebehalla L, Tedesco MB, Sereika SM, Hugo M, Hollis BW, et al. Lactation and bone turnover: a conundrum of marked bone loss in the setting of coupled bone turnover. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(4):1767-76.
- Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Catov JM, Roberts JM, Platt RW, Diesel JC, et al. Maternal vitamin D status and the risk of mild and severe preeclampsia. Epidemiology. 2014;25(2):207-14.
- Robinson CJ, Alanis MC, Wagner CL, Hollis BW, Johnson DD. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early-onset severe preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(4):366.e1-6.
- Liu NQ, Ouyang Y, Bulut Y, Lagishetty V, Chan SY, Hollis BW, et al. Dietary vitamin D restriction in pregnant female mice is associated with maternal hypertension and altered placental and fetal development. Endocrinology. 2013;154(7):2270-80.
- Faulkner JL, Cornelius DC, Amaral LM, Harmon AC, Cunningham MW Jr, Darby MM, et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves pathophysiology in a rat model of preeclampsia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015;310(4):R346-54.
- Black J, Bonham-Carter J. Association between aortic stenosis and facies of severe infantile hypercalcemia. Lancet. 1963;2:745-9.
- Garcia RE, Friedman WF, Kaback M, Rowe RD. Idiopathic hypercalcemia and supravalvular aortic stenosis: documentation of a new syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1964;271:117-20.
- Friedman WF. Vitamin D as a cause of the supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. Am Heart J. 1967;73:718-20.
- Antia AV, Wiltse HE, Rowe RD, Pitt EL, Levin S, Ottesen OE, et al. Pathogenesis of the supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. J Pediatr. 1967;71:431-41.
- Seelig M. Vitamin D and cardiovascular, renal and brain damage in infancy and childhood. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1969;147:537-82.
- Latorre G. Effect of overdose of vitamin D2 on pregnancy in the rat. Fertil Steril. 1961;12:343-5.
- Friedman WF, Roberts WC. Vitamin D and the supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. The transplacental effects of vitamin D on the aorta of the rabbit. Circulation. 1966;34:77-86.
- Morris CA, Mervis CB. William’s syndrome and related disorders. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2000;1:461-84.
- Aravena T, Castillo S, Carrasco X, Mena I, Lopez J, Rojas JP, et al. Williams syndrome: clinical, cytogenetical, neurophysiological and neuroanatomic study. Rev Med Chil. 2002;130:631-7.
- Garabedian M, Jacqz E, Guillozo H, Grimberg R, Guillot M, Gagnadoux MF, et al. Elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in infants with hypercalcemia and an elfin facies. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(15):948-52.
- Becroft DMO, Chambers D. Supravalvular aortic stenosis-infantile hypercalcemia syndrome: in vitro hypersensitivitiy to vitamin D and calcium. J Med Genet. 1976;13:223-8.
- Taylor A, Stern P, Bell N. Abnormal regulation of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D on the Williams Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1982;306:972-5.
- Olsen SF, Secher NJ. A possible preventive effect of low-dose fish oil on early delivery and preeclampsia: indications from a 50-year-old controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 1990;64(3):599-609.
- Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Simhan HN, Holick MF, Powers RW, Roberts JM. Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(9):3517-22.
- Baker AM, Haeri S, Camargo CA Jr, Espinola JA, Stuebe AM. A nested case-control study of midgestation vitamin D deficiency and risk of severe preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(11):5105-9.
- Gernand AD, Bodnar LM, Klebanoff MA, Parks WT, Simhan HN. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and placental vascular pathology in a multicenter US cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(2):383-8.
- Merewood A, Mehta SD, Chen TC, Bauchner H, Holick MF. Association between vitamin D deficiency and primary cesarean section. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(3):940-5.
- Zhang C, Qiu C, Hu FB, David RM, van Dam RM, Bralley A, et al. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 2008;3(11):e3753.
- Bodnar LM, Simhan HN. Vitamin D may be a link to black-white disparities in adverse birth outcomes. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2010;65(4):273-84.
- Camargo CA Jr, Ingham T, Wickens K, Thadhani R, Silvers KM, Epton MJ, et al. Cord- blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of respiratory infection, wheezing, and asthma. Pediatrics. 2011;127(1):e180-e7.
- McGrath JJ, Feron FP, Burne TH, Mackay-Sim A, Eyles DW. Vitamin D3-implications for brain development. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89-90(1-5):557-60.
- Cannell JJ. Autism and vitamin D. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(4):750-9.
- McGrath JJ, Eyles DW, Pedersen CB, Anderson C, Ko P, Burne TH, et al. Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based case-control study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(9):889-94.
- Litonjua AA. Childhood asthma may be a consequence of vitamin D deficiency. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;9(3):202-7.
- Hollis B, Wagner C. Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:717-26.
- Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:842-56.
- Heaney R, Davies K, Chen T, Holick M, Barger-Lux M. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:204-10.
- Souberbielle JC, Cormier C, Kindermans C, Gao P, Cantor T, Forette F, et al. Vitamin D status and redefining serum parathyroid hormone reference range in the elderly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(7):3086-90.
- Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Vitamin d and pregnancy: skeletal effects, nonskeletal effects, and birth outcomes. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;92(2):128-39.
- Wagner CL, McNeil RB, Johnson DD, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Robinson C, et al. Health characteristics and outcomes of two randomized vitamin D supplementation trials during pregnancy: a combined analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:313-20.
- Wagner CL, Baggerly C, McDonnell S, Baggerly KA, French CB, Baggerly L, et al. Post-hoc analysis of vitamin D status and reduced risk of preterm birth in two vitamin D pregnancy cohorts compared with South Carolina March of Dimes 2009-2011 rates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;155(Pt :245-51.
- Goldring ST, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR, Robinson S, Yu C, Poulton S, et al. Prenatal vitamin d supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e66627.
- Sablok A, Batra A, Thariani K, Batra A, Bharti R, Aggarwal AR, et al. Supplementation of vitamin D in pregnancy and its correlation with feto-maternal outcome. Clin Endocrinol. 2015;83(4):536-41.
- Mojibian M, Soheilykhah S, Fallah Zadeh MA, Jannati Moghadam M. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized clinical trial. Iran J Reprod Med. 2015;13(11):687-96.
- Chawes BL, Bonnelykke K, Stokholm J, Vissing NH, Bjarnadottir E, Schoos AM, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy on risk of persistent wheeze in the offspring: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):353-61.
- Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Laranjo N, Harshfield BJ, McElrath TF, O’Connor GT, et al. Effect of prenatal supplementation with vitamin D on asthma or recurrent wheezing in offspring by age 3 years: the VDAART randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):362-70.
- Brehm JM, Celedon JC, Soto-Quiros ME, Avila L, Hunninghake GM, Forno E, et al. Serum vitamin D levels and markers of severity of childhood asthma in Costa Rica. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179(9):765-71.
- Brehm JM, Schuemann B, Fuhlbrigge AL, Hollis BW, Strunk RC, Zeiger RS, et al. Serum vitamin D levels and severe asthma exacerbations in the Childhood Asthma Management Program study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(1):52-8.e5.
- von Mutius E, Martinez FD. Inconclusive results of randomized trials of prenatal vitamin D for asthma prevention in offspring: curbing the enthusiasm. JAMA. 2016;315(4):347-8.
- Wolsk HM, Chawes BL, Litonjua AA, Hollis BW, Waage J, Stokholm J, et al. Prenatal vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of asthma/ recurrent wheeze in early childhood: a combined analysis of two randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186657.
- Oxford centre for evidence-based medicine-levels of evidence. 2009. Online Available from: http://www.cebm.net/oxford-centre-evidence-based-medicine-levels-evidence-march-2009/.
- Girish M, Subramaniam G. Rickets in exclusively breast fed babies. Indian J Pediatr. 2008;75(6):641-3.
- Gartner L, Greer F. American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Breastfeeding Medicine and Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency: new guidelines for vitamin D intake. Pediatrics. 2003;111(4):908-10.
- Kreiter SR, Schwartz RP, Kirkman HN, Charlton PA, Calikoglu AS, Davenport ML. Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J Pediatr. 2000;137:153-7.
- Specker BL, Tsang RC, Hollis BW. Effect of race and diet on human milk vitamin D and 25(OH)D. Am J Dis Child. 1985;139:1134-7.
- Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Vitamin D requirements during lactation: high-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1752S-8S.
- Wagner CL, Hulsey TC, Fanning D, Ebeling M, Hollis BW. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: a 6-month follow-up pilot study. Breastfeed Med. 2006;1(2):59-70.
- Greer FR, Hollis BW, Cripps DJ, Tsang RC. Effects of maternal ultraviolet B irradiation on vitamin D content of human milk. J Pediatr. 1984;105(3):431.
- Ziegler EE, Hollis BW, Nelson SE, Jeter JM. Vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants in Iowa. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):603-10.
- Wagner CL, Greer FR. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):1142-52.
- Food and Nutrition Board. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2010.
- Taylor JA, Geyer LJ, Feldman KW. Use of supplemental vitamin D among infants breastfed for prolonged periods. Pediatrics. 2010;125(1):105-11.
- Gordon CM, Feldman HA, Sinclair L, Williams AL, Kleinman PK, Perez-Rossello J, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants and toddlers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(6):505-12.
- Perrine CG, Sharma AJ, Jefferds ME, Serdula MK, Scanlon KS. Adherence to vitamin D recommendations among US infants. Pediatrics. 2010;125(4):627-32.
- Greer FR, Hollis BW, Napoli JL. High concentrations of vitamin D2 in human milk associated with pharmacologic doses of vitamin D2. J Pediatr. 1984;105:61-4.
- Hollis BW, Pittard WB, Reinhardt TA. Relationships among vitamin D, 25(OH)D, and vitamin D-binding protein concentrations in the plasma and milk of human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986;62:41-4.
- Ala-Houhala M. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels during breast-feeding with or without maternal or infantile supplementation of vitamin D. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1985;4(2):220-6.
- Ala-Houhala M, Koskinen T, Terho A, Koivula T, Visakorpi J. Maternal compared with infant vitamin D supplementation. Arch Dis Child. 1986;61:1159-63.
- Reeve LE, Chesney RW, DeLuca HF. Vitamin D of human milk: identification of biologically active forms. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;36(1):122-6.
- Hollis B, Roos B, Lambert P. Vitamin D and its metabolites in human and bovine milk. J Nutr. 1981;111:1240-8.
- Oberhelman SS, Meekins ME, Fischer PR, Lee BR, Singh RJ, Cha SS, et al. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to improve the vitamin D status of breast-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(12):1378-87.
- Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM. Vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants: a randomized dose-response trial. Pediatr Res. 2014;76(2):177-83.
- Gallo S, Comeau K, Vanstone C, Agellon S, Sharma A, Jones G, et al. Effect of different dosages of oral vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in healthy, breastfed infants: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;309(17):1785-92.
- Food and Nutrition Board. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
- Hollis BW, Wagner CL, Howard CR, Ebeling M, Shary JR, Smith PG, et al. Maternal versus infant vitamin D supplementation during lactation: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2015;136(4):625-34.
- Kramer CK, Ye C, Swaminathan B, Hanley AJ, Connelly PW, Sermer M, et al. The persistence of maternal vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation irrespective of season and supplementation. Clin Endocrinol. 2015;84(5):680-6.
- Vieth Streym S, Hojskov CS, Moller UK, Heickendorff L, Vestergaard P, Mosekilde L, et al. Vitamin D content in human breast milk: a 9-mo follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):107-14.
- Wall CR, Stewart AW, Camargo CA Jr, Scragg R, Mitchell EA, Ekeroma A, et al. Vitamin D activity of breast milk in women randomly assigned to vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(2):382-8.
610 visitors, last modified 09 Aug, 2018, URL: