Effects of Vitamin D supplementation on resolution of fever and cough in children with pulmonary tuberculosis: A randomized double-blind controlled trial in Indonesia
J Glob Health. 2022 Feb 18;12:04015. doi: 10.7189/jogh.12.04015. eCollection 2022.
Lianda Tamara 1 2, Cissy B Kartasasmita 1, Anggraini Alam 1, Dida A Gurnida 1
Vitamin D levels did not drop as much in those getting 1,000 IU
Background: Various studies in adults have shown a strong association between vitamin D and tuberculosis (TB), both in terms of vitamin D status and the benefits of vitamin D in managing TB. Studies on vitamin D and its relationship with childhood TB still lack in Indonesia as a country with the second-highest TB incidence globally. This study evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on resolution of cough and fever in Indonesian children with pulmonary TB.
Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with pulmonary TB and vitamin D insufficiency. Patients were randomly allocated with 1:1 ratio to receive either 1000 IU vitamin D or placebo daily after starting standard TB treatment. The primary outcome in this study was the resolution of fever and cough symptoms reviewed weekly after starting the treatment until the symptoms are resolved. The secondary outcome in this study was 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level and nutritional status which was reviewed at the end of the trial. Intention to treat analyses were applied. Differences in clinical outcomes between two groups were calculated using Mann-Whitney U test or χ2 test, where appropriate.
Findings: A total of 84 patients met the inclusion criteria, aged 6 to 18 years old, newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and vitamin D insufficiency. Eighty patients (95,2%) completed the six months follow-up. Faster resolution of fever, cough, improved malnutrition status, and higher vitamin D level were found in the intervention group compared to the placebo group (all P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Vitamin D is beneficial in improving fever and cough resolution, and improving nutritional status in children with pulmonary TB and vitamin D insufficiency. Determination of adequate supplementation levels of more than 1000 IU requires further research to achieve normal vitamin D levels during the duration of treatment for pulmonary TB in children.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05073965).
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