Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis in Iran: A Systematic Review
Etemadifar M.a, b · Sajjadi S.b, c · Nasr Z.b, c · Firoozeei T.S.b · Abtahi S.-H.b, c · Akbari M.d · Fereidan-Esfahani M.b,c,e
A Department of Neurology, Medical School, b Isfahan Research Committee of Multiple Sclerosis (IRCOMS), c Medical Students' Research Committee, d Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, and e Persia Research Center, Sady Hospital, Isfahan, Iran
Background: There is a wide variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in different geographical regions and the epidemiology of MS in Iran has been a major topic of concern during the last decade. Several population-based studies have shown a sharp increase in the prevalence and incidence of MS in this region. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a comprehensive review regarding the incidence and prevalence of MS across Iran.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We also did a manual search of reference lists from primary articles and relevant reviews. Databases of ongoing research and unpublished literature were also searched.
Results: A total of 22 relevant studies were reviewed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Incidence data were found in 5 studies and ranged from 0.68 to 9.1/100,000 per year in the Iranian population. Prevalence was reported in all studies and ranged from 5.3 to 74.28/100,000 with the higher prevalence among females (female/male ratio ranged from 1.8 to 3.6). The most prevalent subtype of MS was the relapsing-remitting form (65.8-87.8%). The sensory disturbance was the most initial presentation.
Conclusion: The incidence and prevalence of MS in Iran has been increasing rapidly, especially in females. Future research should focus on determining the epidemiological features of MS in the neglected provinces with different ethnicities. Such an effort along with further research towards improvement of data on previously studied areas can enable a field to be opened up to identify the patterns of MS in varied genetic backgrounds and environments of Iran.
© 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
How can they claim that the F/M ratio ranges only from 1.8 – 3.6
Look at the data: F/M ratios in red added by VitaminDWiki
See also VitaminDWiki
- Overview Middle East and vitamin D
- Premenopausal Breast Cancer 10X more likely if total body coverage (Iran) – 2014
- 13 VitaminDWiki pages had CLOTH in title as of Aug 2021
- More hajab clothing may have resulted in 6X increase in Multiple Sclerosis in Tehran – May 2013
- Is the Iranian Revolution to Blame for the Increasing Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Iran
- Vitamin D deficiency (less than 14 ng) all seasons in Iran – 2011
- 70 pcnt of Saudi women were extremely vitamin D deficient, but only 40 pcnt of men – March 2012
- Overview MS and vitamin D contains the following summary
Clinical interventions have shown that Vitamin D can prevent, treat, and even cure Multiple Sclerosis, at a tiny fraction of the cost of the drugs now used to treat it, and without side effects.
- Fact: Low Vitamin D results in higher risk of getting MS
Increase latitude leads to decreased Vitamin D, which leads to increased risk of MS
Dark skinned people are far more likely to get MS (dark skin people typically have low vitamin D)
Elderly (who typically have low vitamin D) are more likely to get MS
Is there increased risk in people who already have diseases associated with low vitamin D - TB, for example ? ? ?
Women typically have 3X increased MS risk then men (note: women typically have 20% lower levels of vitamin D than men)
Exception: women in very sunny climates and dark-skinned women have the same MS risk as men
Obese are 60% more likely to get MS
Multiple Sclerosis 42X more likely if light brown skin and smoke (both associated with low vitamin D) – July 2020
MS recurrence is much higher in spring - the lowest time of the year for vitamin D
increase in clouds/rainfall (which reduces available Vitamin D) is associated with increased risk of MS (Scotland, Western Washington)
MS incidence has increased 70% in a decade while the incidence of vitamin D deficiency doubled
Less MS in those with outdoor occupations PDF file, not a web page
- Fact: MS uses up Vitamin D
- Fact: Lower vitamin D (due to MS using up Vitamin D while fighting the disease) results in many other health problems (such as broken bones), so depleted vitamin D levels must be restored.
- Fact: Vitamin D looks so promising for preventing and treating MS that there were 25 INTERVENTION clinical trials as of Feb 2014
- Fact: Vitamin D reduced the MS relapse rate far better than Fingolimod which is now used for that purpose.
- Note: Fingolimod costs $25,000/year while vitamin D, which works better and has no site effects is 1000 times less expensive.
- Fact: 98% of the genes affected by Interferon are also affected by Vitamin D
- Note: 1 week of Interferon = $4,700, 1 week of vitamin D 10,000X lower cost
- Fact: MS Doctors in Brazil recommending 40-100 ng/mL of Vitamin D
- Fact: Many MS forums are recommending vitamin D to treat MS, with some taking 5,000 to 10,000 IU daily
Observation: Risk of going from pre-MS to MS reduced 68 percent with 7100 IU vitamin D – RCT Dec 2012
- This is an observation instead of a fact - it has not yet been confirmed.
- Fact: VERY LARGE doses of vitamin D have CURED 2,000 people of MS in Brazil
- Controversy: UVB fron sunlight or UVB bulb may be BETTER than Vitamin D for reducing the risk of getting MS
- Hypothesis: In addition to Vitamin D there are many other photoproducts produced by UVB that may promote health.
Summary: lack of consensus on how much to prevent, treat, or cure MS.
- How much Vitamin D to prevent many diseases - such as MS
- How much Vitamin D is needed to treat MS? There is currently no agreement
The recommendations range from 40 to 100 ng - which can result of a dose ranging from 3,000 to 20,000 IU/day
- How Vitamin D is needed to Cure MS?: It appears that 20,000-140,000 IU daily may be needed to CURE the disease
You must be under the supervision of a doctor who knows what to watch for in your individual situation.
High doses of Vitamin D cannot be used as a monotherapy.
You will need to adjust the cofactors: Typically increasing Magnesium and Vitamin K2, and reducing Calcium intake.
Your doctor will monitor these and might increase your intake of Vitamins B2, C, as well as Omega-3899
- Epstein-Barr virus increases risk of Multiple Sclerosis by 32X - Jan 2022
- Multiple Sclerosis treated by Vitamin D, recommends investigating high dose Coimbra - Oct 2021
- Multiple Sclerosis patients had fewer COVID-19 problems (Note: many MSers take Vitamin D) – April 30, 2021
- Vitamin D Resistance hypothesis confirmed by Coimbra high-dose vitamin D protocol – April 2021
- Multiple Sclerosis relapses cut in half by 100,000 IU of Vitamin D every 2 weeks– RCT 2019
Dress codes in the Middle East - strongly enforced in cities in Iran