The Impact of Vitamin D, Calcium, Protein Supplementation, and Physical Exercise on Bone Metabolism After Bariatric Surgery: The BABS Study.
J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Mar;31(3):672-82. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2707. Epub 2015 Sep 30.
Muschitz C1,2, Kocijan R1,2, Haschka J1,2, Zendeli A1, Pirker T1, Geiger C1,2, Müller A3, Tschinder B3, Kocijan A4, Marterer C1, Nia A1, Muschitz GK5, Resch H1,2, Pietschmann P6.
Before surgery for 8 weeks: 28,000 IU Vitamin D weekly
After surgery: - for 2 years: 16,000 IU vitamin D weekly, Calcium, Protein, Exercise
- Strong bones need both physical activity and vitamin D – Jan 2013
- Hypothesis: increased bone mineral density needs protein, Ca, Mg, Vitamin D and K
- Better bones again associated with higher vitamin K intake – Nov 2015
- Prior to Bariatric Surgery 96 percent were vitamin D deficient – July 2014
- Vitamin D and exercise after hip fracture surgery – far fewer deaths – July 2016
- Resistance exercise combined with Vitamin D is great for seniors – meta-analysis July 2017
- 1 in 3 died after hip fracture but only 1 in 14 if add Vitamin D and exercise – RCT April 2017
- Off Topic – Light exercise extend life by 4.5 years – perhaps more than vitamin D – Nov 2012
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are common and effective methods to treat severe obesity, but these procedures can adversely influence bone metabolism and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). This was a prospective 24-month single-center interventional two-arm study in 220 women and similarly aged men (median age 40.7 years) with a body mass index (BMI) >38 kg/m(2) after RYGB and SG procedures. Patients were randomized into:
- 1) an intervention group receiving: 28,000 IU cholecalciferol/wk for 8 weeks before bariatric surgery, 16,000 IU/wk and 1000 mg calciummonocitrate/d after surgery, daily BMI-adjusted protein supplementation and physical exercise (Nordic walking, strength perseverance, and equipment training);
- 2) a non-intervention group: no preoperative loading, nutritional supplementation, or obligatory physical exercise.
At study endpoint, when comparing the intervention group to the non-intervention group, the relative percentage changes of serum levels of
- sclerostin (12.1% versus 63.8%),
- cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX, 82.6% versus 158.3%),
- 25-OH vitamin D (13.4% versus 18.2%),
- phosphate (23.7% versus 32%, p < 0.001 for all),
- procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP, 12% versus 41.2%),
- intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, -17.3% versus -7.6%), and
- Dickkopf-1 (-3.9% versus -8.9%, p < 0.05 for all) differed.
The decline in lumbar spine, total hip and total body aBMD, changes in BMI, lean body mass (LBM), as well as changes in trabecular bone score (TBS) values (p < 0.005 for all) were less, but significantly, pronounced in the intervention group.
We conclude that vitamin D loading and ongoing vitamin D, calcium, and BMI-adjusted protein supplementation in combination with physical exercise decelerates the loss of aBMD and LBM after bariatric surgery. Moreover, the well-known increases of bone turnover markers are less pronounced.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01739855.
PMID: 26350034 DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.2707