Vitamin D insufficiency together with high serum levels of vitamin A increases the risk for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Arch Osteoporos. 2013 Dec;8(1-2):124. Epub 2013 Feb 16.
Mata-Granados JM, Cuenca-Acevedo JR, Luque de Castro MD, Holick MF, Quesada-Gómez JM.
Department of I+D+I, Sanyres Group, Córdoba, Spain.
Postmenopausal women who were vitamin D deficient and had high serum levels of retinol had an eight times higher risk of having osteoporosis.
A high retinol level together with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is an additional risk factor for osteoporosis.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and excess of vitamin A intake as an osteoporosis risk factor in healthy postmenopausal women
DESIGN: The design is a cross-sectional study of 232 healthy postmenopausal women.
METHODS: Bone mass was evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, albumin phosphorus, creatinine, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides analyzed by standard methods and retinol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measured by an online solid-phase extraction coupled with high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.
RESULTS: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] was 70.1 %; 14.3 % had a 25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL, and 23.6 % had insufficiency [25(OH)D 21-29 ng/mL]. Prevalence of high serum levels of retinol (>80 μg/dL) was 36.4 %.
Among subjects with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL (n = 152), 60.4 % (n = 92) had serum levels of retinol > 80 μg/dL.
Bone density measurements revealed that the risk of osteoporosis was ~8 times higher in women with the highest retinol levels, as compared with women with the lowest retinol levels.
In women with 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL, the risk for osteoporosis increased substantially in women who had the highest blood levels of retinol compared to the women with lowest retinol levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher retinol levels together with vitamin D deficiency could be a significant additional risk factor for osteoporosis, underscoring the need for improved physician and public education regarding optimization of vitamin D status in postmenopausal women and developing policies to avoid high serum levels of vitamin A.
- Holick MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357:266–281
- Lips P (2001) Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 22:477–501
- Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B (2006) Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84:18–28
- IOM (Institute of Medicine) (2011) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. The National Academies, Washington, DC
- Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM (2011) Evaluation, treatment & prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96(7):1911–1930
- Holick MF, Siris ES, Binkley N, Beard MK, Khan A, Katzer JT et al (2005) Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3215–3224
- Lips P, Hosking D, Lippuner K, Norquist JM, Eehreb L, Maalouf G et al (2006) The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy amongst women with osteoporosis: an international epidemiological investigation. J Intern Med 260:245–254
- Quesada Gómez JM, Mata Granados JM, Delgadillo J, Ramírez R (2007) Low calcium intake and insufficient serum vitamin D status in treated and non-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic women in Spain. J Bone Miner Metab 22:S309
- Scheven BA, Hamilton NJ (1990) Retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulate osteoclast formation by different mechanisms. Bone 11:53–59
- Abu-Hijleh G, Padmanabhan R (1997) Retinoic acid-induced abnormal development of hind limb joints in the mouse. Eur J Morphol 35:327–336
- Hough S, Avioli LV, Muir H, Gelderblom D, Jenkins G, Kurasi H et al (1988) Effects of hypervitaminosis A on the bone and mineral metabolism of the rat. Endocrinology 122:2933–2939
- Moore T, Sharman IM (1979) Hypervitaminosis A combined with calcium deficiency in rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 49:14–20
- Oreffo RO, Teti A, Triffitt JT, Francis MJ, Carano A, Zallone AZ (1988) Effect of vitamin A on bone resorption: evidence for direct stimulation of isolated chicken osteoclasts by retinol and retinoic acid. J Bone Miner Res 3:203–210
- Clark L, Seawright AA, Gartner RJ (1971) Long bone abnormalities in kittens following vitamin A toxicosis in kittens. J Comp Pathol 81:365–371
- Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A, Reinhold B, Holmberg L, Hans M et al (1998) Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture. Ann Intern Med 129:770–778
- Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA (2002) Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA 287:47–54
- Michaelsson K, Lithell H, Vessby B, Melhus H (2003) Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture. N Engl J Med 348:287–294
- Promislow JHE, Goodman-Gruen D, Slymen DJ, Barrett-Connor E (2002) Retinol intake and bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rancho-Bernardo study. J Bone Miner Res 17:1349–1358
- Opotowsky AR, Bilezikian JP (2004) Serum vitamin A concentration and the risk of hip fracture among women 50 to 74 years old in the United States: a prospective analysis of the NHANES I follow-up study. Am J Med 117:169–174
- Mata-Granados JM, Luque de Castro MD, Quesada Gómez JM (2008) Inappropriate serum levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels in healthy Spanish adults: simultaneous assessment by HPLC. Clin Biochem 41:676–680
- Rosen CJ, Morrison A, Zhou H, Storm D, Hunter SJ, Musgrave K et al (1994) Elderly women in northern New England exhibit seasonal changes in bone mineral density and calciotropic hormones. Bone Miner 1994(25):83–92
- O’Neill TW, Cooper C, Cannata JB, Díaz López JB, Hoszowski K, Johnell O et al (1994) Reproducibility of a questionnaire on risk factors for osteoporosis in a multicentre prevalence survey: the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study. Int J Epidemiol 23:559–565
- Mata-Granados JM, Quesada Gómez JM, Luque de Castro MD (2009) Fully automatic method for the determination of fat soluble vitamins and vitamin D metabolites in serum. Clin Chim Acta 403:126–130
- Diaz Curiel M, Carrasco de la Peña JL, Honorato Pérez J, Pérez Cano R, Rapado A, Ruiz Martínez I (1997) Study of BMD in lumbar spine and femoral neck in a Spanish population. Multicentre Research Project on Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 7:59–64
- Kanis JA, Melton LJ, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N (1994) The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9:17–1141
- Lips P, Duong T, Oleksik AM, Black D, Cummings S, Cox D et al (2001) A global study of vitamin D status and parathyroid function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: baseline data from the multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1212–1221
- Lips P (2007) Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103:620–625
- Jacobs ET, Alberts DS, Foote JA, Green SB, Hollis BW, Yu Z, Martínez ME (2008) Vitamin D insufficiency in southern Arizona. Am J Clin Nutr 87:608–613
- Olmedilla B, Granado F, Southon S, Wright AJ, Blanco I, Gil-Martínez E et al (2001) Serum concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins A, E, and C in control subjects from five European countries. Br J Nutr 85:227–238
- Úbeda N, Basagoiti M, Alonso-Aperte E, Varela-Moreiras G (2007) Hábitos alimentarios, estado nutricional y estilos de vida en una población de mujeres menopáusicas españolas. Nutr Hosp 22:313–321
- Trumbo P, Yates AA, Schlicker S, Poos M (2001) Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J Am Diet Assoc 101:294–301
- Cruz JA, Moreiras-Varela O, van Staveren WA, Trichopoulou A, Roszkowski W (1991) Intakes of vitamins and minerals. Eur J Clin Nutr 45:121–138
- Granado F, Blázquez S, Olmedilla B (2007) Changes in carotenoid intake from fruit and vegetables in the Spanish population over the period 1964–2004. Public Health Nutr 10:1018–1023
- Harrison EH (2005) Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. Annu Rev Nutr 25:87–103
- Ballew C, Galuska D, Gillespie C (2001) High serum retinyl esters are not associated with reduced bone mineral density in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. J Bone Miner Res 16:2306–2312
- Penniston KL, Weng N, Binkley N, Tanumihardjo SA (2006) Serum retinyl esters are not elevated in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis whose preformed vitamin A intakes are high. Am J Clin Nutr 84:1350–1356
- Krasinski SD, Cohn JS, Russell RM, Schaefer EJ (1990) Postprandial plasma vitamin A metabolism in humans: a reassessment of the use of plasma retinyl esters as markers for intestinally derived chylomicrons and their remnants. Metabolism 39:357–365
- Mezquita-Raya P, Muñoz-Torres M, Luna JD, Luna V, López-Rodríguez F, Torres-Vela E et al (2001) Relation between vitamin D insufficiency, bone density, and bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Bone Miner Res 16:1408–1415
- Quesada-Gómez JM, Alonso J, Bouillon R (1996) Vitamin D insufficiency as a determinant of hip fractures. Osteoporos Int 6:42–47
- Metz AL, Walser MM, Olson WG (1985) The interaction of dietary vitamin A and vitamin D related to skeletal development in the turkey poult. J Nutr 115:929–935
- Boucher BJ, Chandra RK, Melhus H, Michaelsson K (2003) Serum retinol levels and fracture risk. N Engl J Med 348:1927–1928
Anticipate seeing vitamin A implicated in many future studies
- Vitamin A may thwart the ability of vitamin D to reduce risk of osteoporosis – June 2010 previous study by same researchers
- All items in category Vitamin A
- Vitamin A (Cod Liver Oil) blocks vitamin D – 2008
- Excess vitamin A caused calcification of heart valves in mice – Dec 2012
- Vitamin D protects against lung cancer unless there is excess vitamin A – July 2012
- Vitamin D needs some vitamin A, but not too much