Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in adolescents: race, season, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness.
Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):1104-11. Epub 2010 May 3.
Dong Y, Pollock N, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Gutin B, Lan L, Chen TC, Keeton D, Petty K, Holick MF, Zhu H.
Medical College of Georgia, Department of Pediatrics, Georgia Prevention Institute, 1120 15th St, HS-1640, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. ydong at mail.mcg.edu
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: approximately 33 degrees N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity.
METHODS: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured.
RESULTS: The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/L) and deficiency (< or = 50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively.
Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season
(winter, 35.9 + or - 2.5 vs 77.4 + or - 2.7 nmol/L;
spring, 46.4 + or - 3.5 vs 101.3 + or - 3.5 nmol/L;
summer, 50.7 + or - 4.0 vs 104.3 + or - 4.0 nmol/L;
autumn, 54.4 + or - 4.0 vs 96.8 + or - 2.7 nmol/L).
With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including
BMI percentile (P = .02),
waist circumference (P < .01),
total fat mass (P < .01),
percentage of body fat (P < .01),
visceral adipose tissue (P = .015), and
subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P = .039).
There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P < .01) and cardiovascular fitness (P = .025).
CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID: 20439594