Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency is Common during Pregnancy.
Am J Perinatol. 2010 Jul 16.
Johnson DD, Wagner CL, Hulsey TC, McNeil RB, Ebeling M, Hollis BW.
Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
The objective was to determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency in African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian pregnant women. Blood samples were taken from 154 African-American, 194 Hispanic, and 146 Caucasian women at <14 weeks of gestation; 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The mean 25(OH)D levels in African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian pregnant women were 15.5 +/- 7.2 (standard deviation), 24.1 +/- 8.7, 29.0 +/- 8.5 ng/mL, respectively.
Ninety-seven percent of African-Americans,
81% of Hispanics, and
67% of Caucasians were
deficient (25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL or <50 nmol/L) or insufficient (25(OH)D levels >/=20 ng/mL or <32 ng/mL or >/=50 nmol/L or <80 nmol/L).
Of these pregnant women, 82% had vitamin D levels <32 ng/mL (<80 ng/mL). In logistic regression models, race was the most important risk factor for vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. African-American women and Hispanic women were more likely to have vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than Caucasian women. Furthermore, primigravid women were more at risk for vitamin D insufficiency. This study demonstrates widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant females living at a southern latitude. African-Americans are at greatest risk. © Thieme Medical Publishers. PMID: 20640974
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