Sunlight is associated with decreased multiple sclerosis risk: no interaction with human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*15.
Eur J Neurol. 2012 Jan 31. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03650.x.
Bäärnhielm M, Hedström AK, Kockum I, Sundqvist E, Gustafsson SA, Hillert J, Olsson T, Alfredsson L.
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Background:? Both insufficient exposure to sunlight and vitamin D deficiency have been associated with an increased risk for multiple sclerosis (MS). An interaction between human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1*15 and vitamin D in MS was recently proposed. We investigated the association between previous exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), vitamin D status at inclusion in the study, and MS risk including the interaction of these factors with HLA-DRB1*15.
Methods:? A population-based case-control study involving 1013 incident cases of MS and 1194 controls was performed in Sweden during 2005-2010. Subjects were classified according to their UVR exposure habits, vitamin D status, and HLA genotypes. The associations between different sun exposure habits/vitamin D levels and MS were calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression. Potential interaction was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction.
Results:? Subjects with low UVR exposure had a significantly increased risk of MS compared with those who reported the highest exposure (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.3).
Similarly, subjects who had 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels less than 50 nM/l had an increased risk for MS (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7). The association between UVR exposure and MS risk persisted after adjustment for vitamin D status. There was no interaction with HLA-DRB1*15 carriage.
Conclusions:? UVR and vitamin D seem to affect MS risk in adults independently of HLA-DRB1*15 status. UVR exposure may also exert a protective effect against developing MS via other pathways than those involving vitamin D.
PDF is available free at Sci-Hub 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03650.x
- All items MS and Vitamin D
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- UV produces more than vitamin D – Aug 2011
- Topical Vitamin D provides more benefits than oral for some people
- Topical includes UV
- Overview MS and Vitamin D which has the following
Controversy: Which is better: UV or Vitamin D
- Increased sun and vitamin D both reduced MS risk – March 2011
30% less likely to get MS for UV increase of 1000 kJ/m2
- dissertation UV and MS - 2010.PDF file
7% less likely to get MS for each 4 ng increase in vitamin D level in blood
- Multiple Sclerosis – many reasons to believe Vitamin D can prevent and treat it – Feb 2018
The articles in both MS and UV categories are:
- Sun reduces risk of Multiple Sclerosis via both Vitamin D and another way – Dec 2019
- UV helped EAE mice (MS) designed to not respond to Vitamin D – Oct 2019
- Multiple Sclerosis 2X more likely if low winter UV – June 2018
- Multiple Sclerosis half as likely if get plenty of sunshine (not a news item) – March 2018
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- Vitamin D and Sun conference – Germany June 2017
- Multiple Sclerosis suppressed by an Ultraviolet wavelength not associated with Vitamin D (mice) – Nov 2016
- Multiple Sclerosis helped by UV – possibly via cytokines, etc. – Oct 2015
- Hypothesis – Multiple Sclerosis risk increases with low UV, viral infections, and antibiotics in childhood – March 2015
- How UVB reduces autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis – April 2014
- UV decreases Multiple Sclerosis via cis-urocanic acid (and via vitamin D) – June 2013
- MS prevention by UV is 2X better than prevention by vitamin D levels – Jan 2012
- There is more in UV than vitamin D which suppresses MS in mice – April 2010
- UV produces more than vitamin D – Aug 2011
- Lack of UV 20X more associated with MS than any other variable – Dec 2010
- Hypothesis - more in sunshine than vitamin D to reduce MS – Feb 2010
- MS UV and Vitamin D – 2009
- Lack of UV increased offspring MS - April 2010
- Mouse MS: UVB but not Vitamin D reduced incidence - April 2010
Vitamin D Binding Protein category listing has
146 items and the following introduction
Vitamin D Binding Protein (GC) gene can decrease the bio-available Vitamin D that can get to cells,
MS prevention by UV is 2X better than prevention by vitamin D levels – Jan 2012
- GC is not the only such gene - there are 3 others, all invisible to standard Vitamin D tests
- The bio-available calculation does not notice the effect of GC, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and VDR
- The actual D getting to the cells is a function of measured D and all 4 genes
- There is >2X increase in 8+ health problems if have poor VDBP (GC)
- It appears that VDBP only blocks oral vitamin D,
- but NOT Vitamin D from sun, UV, topical or inhaled (tissue activated)
- A clue: - Vitamin D from UV is 2X better for MS than oral UV
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