International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Volume 2015, Article ID 192747, 11 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/192747
Anindita Banerjee,1,2 Vineet Kumar Khemka,1,2 Anirban Ganguly,2 Debashree Roy,2 Upasana Ganguly,2 and Sasanka Chakrabarti1
1 Department of Biochemistry, ICARE Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Haldia 721645, India 2Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata 700020, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Anindita Banerjee; anny.banerjee at gmail.com
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the major cause of dementia worldwide, is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognition. The sporadic form of AD accounts for nearly 90% of the patients developing this disease. The last century has witnessed significant research to identify various mechanisms and risk factors contributing to the complex etiopathogenesis of AD by analyzing postmortem AD brains and experimenting with animal and cell culture based models. However, the treatment strategies, as of now, are only symptomatic. Accumulating evidences suggested a significant association between vitamin D deficiency, dementia, and AD. This review encompasses the beneficial role of vitamin D in neurocognition and optimal brain health along with epidemiological evidence of the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among aged and AD population. Moreover, disrupted signaling, altered utilization of vitamin D, and polymorphisms of several related genes including vitamin D receptor (VDR) also predispose to AD or AD-like neurodegeneration.
This review explores the relationship between this gene-environmental influence and long term vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for development of sporadic AD along with the role and rationale of therapeutic trials with vitamin D. It is, therefore, urgently warranted to further establish the role of this potentially neuroprotective vitamin in preventing and halting progressive neurodegeneration in AD patients.
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- Despite several experimental in vivo or in vitro models of AD explaining its molecular pathogenesis which have led to different types of drug treatment strategies and tests in animal and cell-based models and in clinical trials, the treatment of AD in general is terribly inadequate at present.
- A 7-year follow-up study by Annweiler et al. confirms that higher vitamin D dietary intake was associated with lower risk of developing AD among older women .
- The AD-IDEA trial, a randomized placebo- controlled trial, was the first of such trials, on the effectiveness of vitamin D in ADRD patients .
- The trial of vitamin D alone or in combination with other agents/anti-AD drugs have shown positive results in some recent works. Fiala and Mizwicki have shown that combined use of vitamin D3 and DHA . . .
- In contrast, one randomized control by Stein et al. showed that neither cognition nor disability changed significantly after high-dose vitamin D in mild to moderately severe AD cases 
-  M. S. Stein, S. C. Scherer, K. S. Ladd, and L. C. Harrison, “A randomized controlled trial of high-dose vitamin D2 followed by intranasal insulin in Alzheimer’s disease,” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 477-484, 2011.
Note by VitaminDWiki: the study used less than 6,000 IU D2 for only 8 weeks, and kept vitamin D levels < 70 ng.
Suspect far more Vitamin D is needed when the Vitamin D genes partially block the Vitamin D getting to the cells
Note: The cure of Multiple Sclerosis, another disease which is hampered by Vitamin D genes, achieves a 150 nanograms of Vitamin D
- (from conclusion) However, it is worth noting that a very recent study has identified vitamin D binding protein to be a potential blood biomarker for the diagnosis of AD .However, further verification with larger epidemiological and molecular evidences is eagerly awaited before targeting DBP as a possible therapeutic modulation in AD.
-  R. J. Bishnoi, R. F. Palmer, and D. R. Royall, “Vitamin D binding protein as a serum biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease,” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 37-45, 2015.
A TaqI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor is associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Korean population: a case-control study
Int J Clin Exp Med 2016;9(10):19268-19279 www.ijcem.com /ISSN:1940-5901/IJCEM0029304
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Schizophrenia increased 40 percent for Spring births after Danes stopped vitamin D fortification – April 2014
- Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in at least 11 ways – Jan 2013
- Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D gene – 2012
- Alzheimer’s and Vitamins D, B, C, E, as well as Omega-3, metals, etc. – June 2013
- Benefits of Vitamin D often limited by genes
Alzheimers-Cognition - Overview has the following summary
- FACT: Cognitive decline is 19X more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D levels.
- FACT: Alzheimer’s 21 % more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Alzheimer's Disease is 4X less likely if less likely if high vitamin D
- FACT: Every single risk factor listed for Alzheimer's Disease is also a risk factor for low vitamin D levels
- FACT: Elderly cognition gets worse as the elderly vitamin D levels get even lower (while in senior homes)
- OBSERVATION: Reports of increased vitamin D levels result in improved cognition
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer's Disease has been seen to halt when vitamin D was added.
- OBSERVATION: 39 vitamin D and Alz. or Cognition lntervention trials as of Sept 2018
- OBSERVATION: 2 Meta-analysis in 2012 agreed that Alzheimer's Disease. associated with low vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 50X increase in Alzheimer's while decrease in vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in 11 ways
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s cognition improved by 4,000 IU of vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Plaque removed in mice by equiv. of 14,000 IU daily
- FACT: Vitamin D is extremely low cost and has very very few side effects
- CONCLUSION: Everyone concerned about cognitive decline or Alzheimer's Disease should take vitamin D
- PREDICTION: By 2024 Omega-3 and high dose Vitamin D will be found to reverse Alzheimer's in humans
- As of 2018 that combination has worked well with Multiple Sclerosis, Sleep, and Cluster Headaches
- All items in category Cognition and vitamin D
Pages listed in BOTH of the categories Cognition and Vitamin D Receptor
- Alzheimer’s (1.2X) and Parkenson’s (1.3X) more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis March 2019
- Treating herpes reduced incidence of senile dementia by 10 X (HSV1 reduces VDR by 8X) – 2018
- Body may changes gene activation if more Vitamin D is needed by tissue (Schiz. in this case) – Oct 2018
- Alzheimer’s associated with Vitamin D and Vitamin D receptor – video and pdf – Aug 2018
- Cerebral small vessel disease 2.5 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Sept 2018
- Alzheimer’s Disease is associated with genes which restrict vitamin D – Aug 2015
- Parkinson's and Alzheimer's: associations with vitamin D receptor genes and race – meta-analysis July 2014
- Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- Alzheimer’s patients are genetically 70 percent more likely to be vitamin D in-efficient – Feb 2012
Pages listed in BOTH of the categories Cognition and Vitamin D Binding Protein