J Am Coll Nutr. 2020 Sep 1;1-14. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2020.1806758
Navya Vyas 1 2, Shilia Jacob Kurian 2 3, Debasis Bagchi 4, Mohan K Manu 2 5, Kavitha Saravu 2 6, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan 7, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay 8, Mahadev Rao 3, Sonal Sekhar Miraj 2 3
COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos as of July 29 includes
- 21 trials (generally treatment, not prevention), +10 observational studies,
- +7 recommendations, +34 associations, +58 speculations, +20 videos,
and has the following recent updates
- Virtually no COVID-19 cases in countries having more than 30 ng of Vitamin D - Sept 17, 2020
- Studies on Vitamin D and COVID-19 (11 categories) - Sept 20, 2020
- Rate of COVID-19 test positive is 40 pcnt lower if high vitamin D (192,000 people) - Holick Sept 2020
- 14.7 X more likely to die of COVID-19 if less than 12 ng of Vitamin D (185 Germans) – Sept 10, 2020
- Low D increases risk of infection. Dr. Fauci Sept 11
- "If you're deficient in vitamin D, that does have an impact on your susceptibility to infection. I would not mind recommending, and I do it myself, taking vitamin D supplements,..." 32 minutes into Instagram interview
- Dr. Fauci takes 6,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – Sept 2020
- COVID-19 defeated by activated Vitamin D in Spain - pilot RCT Aug 29, 2020
- COVID-19 1.77X less likely if more than 20 ng of vitamin D (489 people) – JAMA Sept 2020
- COVID-19 increased: 3.5 if Ultra-Orthodox, 2.6X if dark skin (52,000 Israelis) - Sept, 2020
- 1.8 X higher risk if <12 ng vs >30 ng - independent of sex, race
- Parkinson's Disease patients who were taking Vitamin D were 0.56 X less likely to catch COVID-19 - June 2020
- COVID‐19 in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Living in Lombardy, Italy: https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.28176
- Note: Parkinson’s patients – 41 percent now supplement with Vitamin D – Nov 2017
- WHO – Severe COVID-19 mortality reduced by hormones (should consider hormone D too) - Sept 2020
- COVID-19 Call to Action – eliminate Vitamin D deficiency – Manson Sept 1, 2020
- Vitamin D in Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 (16 reasons) – Sept 1, 2020
- Vitamin D associated with less severe COVID-19 (Iran) - Aug 28, 2020
- Perhaps the Vitamin D deficiency pandemic caused the COVID-19 pandemic - Aug 17, 2020 Speculation by VitaminDWiki
- Mainstream Media Catching on to Vitamin D’s Impact on COVID - Aug 17, 2020
- Massive Review of papers on Vitamin D and COVID-19 - peer reviewed Aug 7?
Search Google Scholar for COVID-19 Vitamin D 19,100 publications Sept 18, 2020
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) partly explains geographical differences in COVID-19 susceptibility, severity, and mortality. VDD among African-Americans, diabetics, hypertensive, and aged populations possibly explain the higher death rate, aggravated by cocooning. Vitamin D is pleiotropic, mediating bone metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and immune functions, whereas VDD is associated with inflammatory reactions and immune dysfunction, predisposing individuals to severe infections.
Vitamin D modulates innate and adaptive immunity via the expression of genes that code antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). And the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)14, the co-receptor for epidermal toll-like receptor (TLR)4. AMPs stimulate TLR2 in macrophages, increasing the conversion of vitamin D into its active form by cytochrome P450 27B1. Antiviral properties of vitamin D-induced AMPs can shift the polarization of the adaptive immune response from helper T cells (Th)1 to the more regulatory Th2 responses that suppress immune over-reactivity by preventing cytokine storm, which is already demonstrated during the Spanish flu episode.
Vitamin D induces antiviral effects by both direct and indirect mechanisms via
- the interplay between major cellular and viral elements,
- induction of autophagy and apoptosis,
- variation of genetic and epigenetic factors.
The crosstalk between vitamin D and intracellular signaling pathways may operate as a primary regulatory action on viral gene transcription.
VDD may increase the likelihood of infection with enveloped viruses, including
- hepatitis, and
Key teaching points
Vitamin D induces antiviral effects by direct and indirect mechanisms via
- induction of autophagy, etc.
Epidemiology of VDD partly explains geographical differences in COVID-19
- severity, and
Global data correlates severe VDD with COVID-19 associated
- disrupted immune response and
- reduced platelet count, and
- prolonged prothrombin time,
together suggesting benefits from supplementation. Many clinical trials are underway globally to delineate the role of vitamin D in both prevention and treatment of COVID-19.