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Stroke 22 percent more likely if low Vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2021

Association between Vitamin D and Risk of Stroke: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Eur Neurol. 2021 Jul 29;1-10. doi: 10.1159/000517584
Cen Su 1, Biao Jin 1, Haiping Xia 1, Kangren Zhao 1

Background: Previous studies have shown inconsistent results for associations between vitamin D and risk of stroke. We gathered the existing published articles and conducted this meta-analysis with the aim to explore the association between vitamin D and risk of stroke.

Methods: We searched for articles exploring the association between vitamin D and risk of stroke and published before April 2021 in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All statistical analyses were made using STATA 12.0 software. Q test and I2 were applied to examine heterogeneities between studies.

Results: For the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and risks of stroke, the present analysis included 20 cohort studies (including 213,276 participants) and a case-control analysis (including 13,642 participants). Additionally, the analysis included 15 studies (including 41,146 participants given vitamin D supplementation and 41,163 participants given placebo) to evaluate the influence of vitamin D supplementation on risk of stroke.
Higher circulating levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were associated with a reduced risk of stroke (odds ratio/relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.70-0.86, I2 = 41.5%, p = 0.025).

However, the present analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation did not influence the risk of stroke (hazard ratio = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.96-1.14, I2 = 2.3%, p = 0.425).

Conclusions: Our analysis indicated that lower circulating level of vitamin D was associated with an elevated risk of stroke, but extra supplement of vitamin D failed to show benefit in decreasing the risk of stroke. Further research and study are also needed to show the role of vitamin D in relation to stroke.

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