International Journal of Obesity (2018), doi:10.1038/s41366-018-0032-2
Mya Thway Tint, Mary F Chong, Izzuddin M Aris, Keith M Godfrey, Phaik Ling Quah, Jeevesh Kapur, Seang Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Victor S. Rajadurai, Fabian Yap, Michael S Kramer, Yap-Seng Chong, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Marielle V Fortier & Yung Seng Lee
- Infant risk of obesity increased by 50 percent if low vitamin D during pregnancy – Sept 2015
- Overweight children associated with low vitamin D during pregnancy – 2015, 2018
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|Randomized Controlled Trial|
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki Table edited by VitaminDWiki
Women in Singapore get a lot of vitamin D from the equatorial sun if they do not wear concealing clothing (Muslim)
Lower vitamin D status has been associated with adiposity in children through adults. However, the evidence of the impact of maternal vitamin-D status during pregnancy on offspring’s adiposity is mixed. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between maternal vitamin-D [25(OH)D] status at mid-gestation and neonatal abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) compartments, particularly the deep subcutaneous adipose tissue linked with metabolic risk.
Participants (N = 292) were Asian mother-neonate pairs from the mother-offspring cohort, Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes. Neonates born at ≥34 weeks gestation with birth weight ≥2000 g had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2-weeks post-delivery. Maternal plasma glucose using an oral glucose tolerance test and 25(OH)D concentrations were measured. 25(OH)D status was categorized into inadequate (≤75.0 nmol/L) and sufficient (>75.0 nmol/L) groups. Neonatal AAT was classified into superficial (sSAT), deep subcutaneous (dSAT), and internal (IAT) adipose tissue compartments.
Inverse linear correlations were observed between maternal 25(OH)D and both sSAT (r = −0.190, P = 0.001) and dSAT (r = −0.206, P < 0.001). Each 1 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with reductions in sSAT (β = −0.14 (95% CI: −0.24, −0.04) ml, P = 0.006) and dSAT (β = −0.04 (−0.06, −0.01) ml, P = 0.006). Compared to neonates of mothers with 25(OH)D sufficiency, neonates with maternal 25(OH)D inadequacy had higher sSAT (7.3 (2.1, 12.4) ml, P = 0.006), and dSAT (2.0 (0.6, 3.4) ml, P = 0.005) volumes, despite similar birth weight. In the subset of mothers without gestational diabetes, neonatal dSAT was also greater (1.7 (0.3, 3.1) ml, P = 0.019) in neonates with maternal 25(OH)-inadequacy. The associations with sSAT and dSAT persisted even after accounting for maternal glycemia (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose).
Neonates of Asian mothers with mid-gestation 25(OH)D inadequacy have a higher abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, especially dSAT (which is metabolically similar to visceral adipose tissue in adults), even after accounting for maternal glucose levels in pregnancy.