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Handbook of Vitamin D – 700 pages – 2013

Handbook of vitamin D in human health: vitamin D in human health, Prevention, treatment and toxicity

Edited by: Ronald Ross Watson
Human Health Handbooks no. 4 ISSN 2212-375X
Wageningen Academic Publishers

See also VitaminDWiki

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ISBN: 978-90-8686-210-8 e-ISBN: 978-90-8686-765-3 DOI: 10.3920/978-90-8686-765-3
First published, 2013
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned. Nothing from this publication may be translated, reproduced, stored in a computerised system or published in any form or in any manner, including electronic, mechanical, reprographic or photographic, without prior written permission from the publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers P.O. Box 220 6700 AE Wageningen The Netherlands
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©Wageningen Academic Publishers The Netherlands, 2013
The publisher is not responsible for possible damages, which could be a result of content derived from this publication.

Overview of key vitamin D modified conditions

  • 1. Vitamin D deficiency in the 21st century: an overview 13 S.S. Oberhelman and T.D. Thacher
  • 2. Vitamin D in health of seniors 39 F. Lauretani, M. Maggio, C. Ruggiero, G.P. Ceda and L. Ferrucci
  • 3. Vitamin D supplementation and public health policy 53 R. Babaria and R.R. Watson;

Vitamin D and musculoskeletal health

  • 4. Vitamin D and fall risk 67 J. Basran, R.L. Duckham and D.B. Hogan
  • 5. The beneficial effects of higher (adequate) vitamin D status on bone growth and muscle strength in children and adolescents 83 L.H. Foo and S.J. Whiting
  • 6. Hypovitaminosis D and muscle strength 97 T. Songpatanasilp
  • 7. Vitamin D and growth 115 H.T. Viljakainen and E. Hyppónen
  • 8. Vitamin D and arthritis 137 U.J. Haque
  • 9. High-dose vitamin D supplementation in the elderly 147 C.J. Bacon

Vitamin D and chronic disease

  • 10. Vitamin D deficiency and premature death 175 A. Zittermann and S. Prokop
  • 11. Vitamin D and hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease 193 D. Hansen
  • 12. Diseases affected by vitamin D: sun exposure 207 W.B. Grant
  • 13. Immune modulation by UV: role of vitamin D 227 P.H. Hart and S. Gorman
  • 14. Vitamin D and periodontal disease N. Garcia, D. Miley and D.A. Dixon 243
  • 15. Vitamin D and cystic fibrosis 255 T. Pincikova and M. Flodstróm-Tullberg

Vitamin D and infectious disease

  • 16. Vitamin D and respiratory infections in infants and toddlers: a nutri-shine perspective 277 .V. Balan, U.S. Babu, D.E. Godar andM.S. Calvo
  • 17. Vitamin D in HIV/AIDS: a role? 299 J.-P. Viard and J.-C. Souberbielle
  • 18. Vitamin D and tuberculosis 321 K. vinh quócLUóngandL.T.H. Nguyen
  • 19. Vitamin D and dental health 355 E. Jordan, S. Davis, P. Rakes, L.K. McCauley and J. Bashutski
  • 20. Inflammation and vitamin D 373 X. Guillot, C. Prati, N. Saidenberg-Kermanach, L. Semerano, G. Falgarone, M.C. Boissier and D. Wendling

Vitamin D and cancer

  • 21. Vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer 393 T.C. Chen and K.C. Chiang
  • 22. Vitamin D and melanoma 419 J.A. Newton-Bishop and J.A. Randerson-Moor
  • 23. Vitamin D autocrine system and prostate cancer prevention and treatment 445 T.C. Chen
  • 24. Vitamin D and esophageal cancer 465 H.G. Coleman, M.M. Cantwell and L.J. Murray
  • 25. Monitoring in vivo immune modulation by vitamin D in multiple sclerosis 475 A.-H. Muris, J. Damoiseaux and J. Smolders.
  • 26. Vitamin D and insulin sensitivity 503 B. Larrick, S. Donkin and D. Teegarden
  • 27. Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus: where are we? J. Liu 527
  • 28. Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk: hype or new hope? 549 J.L. Anderson and J.B. uhlestein
  • 29. Vitamin D and transplantation 567 M. Courbebaisse, J.C. Souberbielle and E. Thervet
  • 30. Vitamin D and bone health among people with epilepsy 589 R.A. Shellhaas, R.K. Singh and S.M. Joshi;

Women and children

  • 31. Neonatal effects of enhanced vitamin D and vitamin D for premature infants 609 H.K. Linke
  • 32. Lactation and vitamin D 633 S.N. Taylor, C.L. Wagner and B.W. Hollis
  • 33. Vitamin D replacement in pregnant women in developing countries 651 M.T. Sahu and M. Sahu
  • 34. Vitamin D in pregnancy 671 D. Dror
  • 35. Design and rationale of the VITamin D and OmegÁ-3 TriaL (VITAL) 693 S.S. Bassuk and .E. Manson
  • Index
  • About the edtior 729

Index

A
aBMD 85
ABPA 254, 262
absorption 19
accelerated aging 307
Acinar cells 394
acute lower respiratory infection - See: acute rejection - See: AR adaptive immunity
suppression 430
adenocarcinomas 464
adipocytes 504
adiponectin 513
gene 569
adipose tissue 513
adiposity 154, 512, 532, 610
adolescent
- girls 86, 652
- pregnancy 652 adverse
- effects supplementation 122, 680
- events 610
pregnancy 533
aetiology of melanoma 425
age
- effects 70
- -specific dietary intake 283
aggressive periodontitis 358
aging
- accelerated 307
- skin 148
telomeric 180
albuminuria 202
alcohol 392
alfacalcidol 74, 198
allelic variations in vitamin D receptor 326
allergic
- asthma 228
- bronchopulmonary aspergillosis - See:ABPA
- response 375 allergy
- food ~ 215
- predisposition 677 ALRI 289, 638
altitude 215
alveolar
- bone 355, 365
- bone resorption 242
ALRI - crest heights 245
- ridge resorption 243
type II pneumocytes 285
American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations 619
AMP-activated protein kinase 513
analogs 198, 381
- efficacy 259
noncalcemic 401
ancillary studies 701
angiogenesis 186, 332, 399
ankylosing spondylitis patients 490
anorexia 658
antenatal services
- in developing countries 657
in rural areas 658
anthropometry 658
in newborn infants 650, 658
anti-angiogenic effects 428
anticancer immune response 423
anticarcinogenic effects 397, 468
anticonvulsant effect 597
antifracture efficacy 108
antigen 230
- presenting cell - See: APC
specific antibody 490
anti-inflammatory
- effects 356
- properties 246 antimicrobial
- activity 247, 375
peptides 261, 286
antioxidants 426
antiproliferative
- effect 397, 427
- properties 185 antirachitic
- activity 633, 642
- deficient foods 16
- metabolites 641 antiretroviral
- drugs 299, 305
- treatment 299 antiseizure
- drugs 589
medications and bone metabolism 593
antitumor activity 401
APC 476, 492
apoptosis 186, 397, 420, 445, 468, 511
AR 573
areal bone mineral density - See: aBMD
arteriosclerosis in renal patients 570
asthma 232, 287, 677
allergic 228
atmospheric pollution 15, 651
atrial fibrillation 558
attachment apparatus of teeth 355
autoimmune
- disease 139, 377, 475
- encephalomyelitis 478
- thyroiditis 380
autoimmunity 140
autophagy 309
B
Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination -
See: BCG vaccination bacterial vaginosis - See: BV
Barrett's esophagus 466, 468
baseline blood sample 699
B cells 377, 490
BCG vaccination 330
BD 488
Behcet's disease - See: BD
beta cells - See: pancreatic (3-cells
bile 502
biomarker 277
birth
- status 636
- weight 675
bisphosphonates 255
BMC 86
- in neonates 675 BMD 108, 142, 157, 255
- in epilepsy patients 591
- in formula-fed infants 639
- in HIV patients 307
BMI 302, 427
body mass index - See: BMI bone
- as a critical endocrine organ 534
- cross-sectional area 118
- density scans 598
- development 616
- geometry 86
- mineral content - See: BMC
- mineral density - See: BMD; See also: aBMD (areal BMD); See also: vBMD (volumetric BMD)
- mineralization 635
- reabsorbing osteoclasts 379
- resorption 358
bone health 526, 529, 695
- breastfeeding infants 637
- guidelines 277
- indicator 679
- infants 610
- post-menopausal 633
- reduced 425
- supplementation 637 bone loss
- after transplantation 566, 568
- cortical 42 bone mass 88
- accrual 116
- mandibular 245
- peak 84 bone size
- and diabetic risk 533
- and osteocalcin 534 bone turnover 85, 109
- in epilepsy patients 592
- markers 118, 157
brain 677
breast cancer 24, 184
breastfed infants 636, 637
supplementation 21, 638, 639
breastfeeding 620
- bone health 637
supplementation of mothers 640
breastmilk 19, 280, 633
- calcium 633 bronchiolitis 287, 613
BV 674
C
calcidiol - See: hydroxyvitamin D calcifediol - See: hydroxyvitamin D
calcitonin 549
calcitriol - See: dihydroxyvitamin D
calcitroic acid 450
calcium 74
- absorption 17, 103, 260, 453, 567
- accretion 656
- balance 122
- breast milk 633
- cord blood 652
- CVD risk of ~ supplementation 181
- deposition 696
- during lactation 632
- epilepsy patients 590
- homeostasis 102, 127, 163, 261, 354, 475, 512, 637
- intestinal absorption 567
- intracellular levels 511
- optimal absorption 103
- -rich diet 660
- supplementation 109, 123, 124, 141, 245
- transport 446 calculus 358 calmodulin 106
CAMP 286
cancer 183, 209, 692, 695
- breast ~ 24, 184
- colon ~ 161
- colorectum 24, 183
- esophageal ~ 464
- geographical variation 209, 393
- in renal TR 571
- nonmelanoma skin — See: NMSC
- pancreatic ~ 184, 402
- prostate ~ 184, 444, 572
- risk reduction 211, 571
- sex specific impact 184
- skin ~ 183
- skin ~ prevention 399
- supplementation 693
- treatment 395
upper gastrointestinal ~ 467
carbamazepine 593
cardiac myocytes 548
cardiomyopathy 615
cardioprotective role 182
cardiovascular
- benefits 23
- disease - See: CVD
carrier in vitamin D supplementation 259
cathelicidin 247, 328, 356, 375, 572
- antimicrobial peptide - See: CAMP
CD4 count 302
cell growth
- inhibition 398
- prostate cells 449
central nervous system - See: CNS
cerebral palsy 597
CF 254
- European ~ bone mineralisation
guidelines 258
- long term complications 254
- supplementation 255
- transmembrane regulator - See: CFTR
CFTR 262
chemokine 286
cholecystectomy 393
chondrocyte metabolism 379
chromosome 20 323
chronic
- allograft deterioration 573
- immune diseases 226
- inflammation 429
kidney disease - See: CKD
circulating monocytes 489
CKD 182
clinical attachment 248 CNS
- demyelination 234
- tissue 476 coagulation 310
cod liver oil 14, 396, 432, 531
cognitive function 42
colon
- cancer 161
tumor 399 colorectal cancer 24, 183
compliance 156, 699
complier selection 697
congestive heart failure 615
contact hypersensitivity 233
contemporary lifestyle 634
controlled environments 59
cord blood 288, 609, 636
- calcium level 652
- of newborns 488 cortical bone
- loss 42
- mass 593
C-reactive protein - See: CRP
criteria for causality 216
Crohn's disease 213, 379, 489
- supplementation 379 CRP 379, 381, 479
- levels 429
crushed bones 15
cumulative intake 279
cutaneous synthesis 281
during lactation 634
cutaneous tuberculosis 422
CVD 180, 214, 528, 548, 692, 695
- confirmation of ~ diagnose 698
- mortality 555
- risk factors 570
- risk in TR 570
- risk reduction 555
supplementation 693
cyclosporine A 574
CYP24A1 478
CYP27B1 449, 478, 570
cystic fibrosis - See: CF
cytochrome P450 99, 305, 445, 447, 592
- inhibitors 452
mutations in ~ enzymes 445
cytokine 42, 142, 212, 243, 261, 286, 320,328, 422, 429, 478, 479, 615, 673
cytosolic receptor 298

D
daily reference intake - See: DRI
DAS of RA 141 DBC - See: VDBC DC 262, 287, 476, 573
deficiency - See: VDD 7-dehydrocholesterol 99, 148, 227
dehydrocholesterol 322 demyelination 475
of central nervous system 234
dendritic cell - See: DC
dental caries 211, 361
- sunlight exposure 362 dental plaque 355 dentin 365
dentition 611 dermal synthesis 16
diabetes mellitus 23, 229, 232, 263, 393
- due to corticosteroid and tacrolimus
treatment 569
- gestational - See: GDM
- prevalence 527
- risk reduction 532
- type 1 213, 530, 615, 638, 678
- type 1, incidence 527
- type 1, latitude and risk 615
- type 1, reduced risk 530
- type 2 503, 531
- type 2, global epidemic 528
- UVB exposure 530
dialysis patients 555 dietary
- guidelines esophageal cancer 469
- requirements 277
supplements 362
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 16, 17, 98
- analog 452
- during pregnancy 671
- functions 397
- in cord blood 671
suppression 673 24,
25-dihydroxyvitamin D 320
disease
- activity score - See: DAS
- remission 489
DNA
- damage 228
repair 233
domestic animals 124
dose 149
- daily ~ 257
- during pregnancy 657, 659, 660
- for breastfeeding infants 638
- for fall prevention 76
- -response 150
to balance efficacy and safety 695
doxercalciferol 199
draining lymph nodes 230
DRI 59
drugs
- antiretroviral 299, 305
- antiseizure 589
- immunosuppressive 567
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry - See: DXA
DXA 86, 87, 701


EAE 380 EAR 277
ecological approach 216
ectopic calcification 365
edentulism 242
EGFR 398
elastosis 211
elderly 101
- patients 105
- women 74 enamel 365
- hypoplasia 363 endocrine
- pancreas 535
- system 99 endogenous
- insulin secretion 507
- synthesis 526
endothelial dysfunction in renal patients - 570
enzyme-inducing medications 592
epidermal growth factor receptor - See:EGFR
epigenetic
- alterations 395
- control 452
- fetal programming 284
- mechanisms 677 epilepsy 588
- BMD 591
- bone turnover 592
- calcium intake 590
- etiology 588
- fracture risk 590
- obesity 591
- sunlight exposure 592
- supplementation 597
treatment-resistant 590
epiphyses calcification 15
epithelial
- barriers 261
- cells 254
erythema 227, 229 esophageal cancer 464
- adenocarcinoma 466
- dietary guidelines 469
- incidence 465
- protective factors 464
- racial disparities 465
- risk 464, 467
- squamous cell carcinoma 466 esophageal tissue 468
esoteric tests 557
Esslinger Fitness Index 88
estimated average intake - See: EAR
estradiol 632
estrogen 671
ethnic backgrounds 57
ethnicity 119, 531
excision 418
exogenous consumption 526
experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - See: EAE
extra-osseous calcification 197
extra-renal tissues 502, 567
F
factorial design 694 falecalcitriol 200
falling 70, 105
- definition 68
- fear of ~ 69
- medical costs 68
- occurence 108
- prevention 69, 72
- reduction 108, 157
- related fractures 42
- risk factors 69
surrogate markers for risk 71
fast twitch muscle fibers 71
fat
- accumulation of vitamin D 161
- -soluble A 15
- -soluble vitamin 532
- stores 507 fatty fish 56
femur bone lengths 534
fetal
- bone mass 118
- femoral splaying 675
- programming 650
- skeletal development 675
Index
fetus 280 FFA 510
fibrogenesis 574 fibromyalgia 380
food
- allergy 215
- frequency questionnaire 700
- sensitivity of infants 614
- sources 90 foodstuffs 148 formula 635
- fortification 620 formula-fed infants
- BMD 639
fortification 60, 276
- baby foods 282
- dairy 507
- formula 620
milk 54, 56, 124
FOXP3 expression 231
fractures 42, 68, 108, 157, 163, 255
- epilepsy patients 590
- renal patients 197
- risk 177
- risk reduction 178 frailty 45
free fatty acids - See: FFA
free radicals 333
frequency of delivery 155
G
GC protein 126
GDM 529, 533, 673
gene mutations 394
genetically modified animals 125
genomics 433
- increased risk 614
pathway 99 genotype 125, 127
gestational
- diabetes mellitus - See: GDM
supplementation 289
gingiva 355
gingival
- epithelial cells 357
- inflammation 244
recession in sheep 360
gingivitis 355
girls
- adolescent 86, 652
- premenarcheal 123
- prepubertal 638 glucose
- and pancreatic cancer 402
- disposal 512
- hepatic output 505
- homeostasis 506, 512
- lowering 263
- supplementation 508
- tolerance 505
GLUT4 504, 513
glycaemia 569
glycemic status 532
graft
- rejection 380
survival in animal models 573
group-specific component protein - See: GC
protein growth consequences 611
H
HAART 308
harmful effects 429
HbA1c 673
health assessment 701
hepatic conversion 154
high-dose therapy 75, 660
highly active antiretroviral therapy - See: HAART
hip fractures 68, 108
HIV 674
- glomerular filtration rate in patients 308
- mother-to-child transmission 308, 613
- related factors 302
- supplementation 310
- transmission during gestation 656
- untreated infected pregnant women 308
HLA 323
homebound pregnant women 656
homeostasis 89
- calcium 102, 127, 163, 261, 354, 475, 512, 637
- glucose 506, 512
- immune 478
- mineral 98
- phosphorus 176
- T cell 476
human leukocyte antigen - See: HLA
1a-hydroxylase 180, 195, 692
hydroxylation 126, 444, 447
25-hydroxyvitamin D 16, 17
- catabolism induced by
immunosuppressive drugs 567
- cord blood 280, 671
- deficiency 70
- during pregnancy 671
- half-life 149, 150
- HIV infected persons 299, 309
- insufficiency 70
- levels and symptoms 102
- recommended serum level in CF
population 258
- response to vitamin D intake 25
- serum concentration 54
- status in neonates 638
- target levels 150
- toxicity 75
- upper safety limit 177
usefullness of monitoring 76
hypercalcaemia 41, 103, 162, 232, 310, 381, 401, 454, 476, 558, 658, 681, 699
hypercalciuria 162, 401, 641
hyperglycaemia 511, 533
hyperinsulinemia 505, 511
hyperlipidemia 553
hyperparathyroidism 44, 105, 163, 551, 566, 568
hyperphosphatemia 195 hypertension 23, 553
hypervitaminosis D 89, 640, 658
- and teeth 363
maternal 660
hypocalcaemia 530, 609, 615
hypophosphatemia 363
hypovitaminosis D 19, 84
- and CVD risk 552
- clinical signs 102
- myopathy 105
- wintertime 24
I
IBD 373, 379
IGF-1 124, 127, 612
IgG 262
immigrants 651 immune
- cells 374
- dysregulation in MS 475
- homeostasis 478
- regulation 354
immune response 309, 356, 475, 477
- tuberculosis 247 immune system 139, 612
- in lungs 285 immunoglobulin G - See: IgG immunological
- adaptations 672
- responses to UV-induced damage 425
immunomodulation 138, 246, 373, 492, 566
- after transplantation 574 immunosuppression 421, 567
- by UV exposure 228, 420
therapy 226
treatments 566 immunotherapy 429
impaired mobility 591 India 61
infant
- growth 121
- health 632
- infections 614
- plasma concentration 617
- prematurely born 616 infants
- supplementation 61, 121, 610 infections 422
in transplantation recipients 572
infectious diseases 211
inflammation 142, 186, 310, 400, 429
- chronic 429
- gingival 244
- markers 479
- markers in neonatal immune cells 613
- soluble markers 491
- synovial 379
vascular 551
inflammatory
- bowel disease - See: IBD
- process in tuberculosis 333
skin conditions 226
influenza A 289
innate immunity 422
- receptors 375
- system 286, 492
- system response 326, 450, 613 insufficiency
- at birth 612
- in CF patients 256
- in HIV infected persons 299 insulin
- effect of parathyroid hormone on
sensitivity 512
- endogenous ~ secretion 507
- insensitivity 507, 528
- -like growth factor 1 - See: IGF-1
- receptor 504, 505, 511
- resistance 503, 508, 569
- -responsive tissues 504, 510
- secretion 511, 530
- sensitivity 503
- skeletal muscle ~ resistance 509
- supplementation 508 intake
- daily reference ~ - See: DRI
- during pregnancy 679
- frequency during lactation 633
- tolerable limit 58, 640
- upper level for mothers 636 intestinal
- malabsorption 260
vitamin D receptor expression 423
intramuscular injection 509 intrauterine
- bone growth 119
- nutritional deficits 117 Islets of Langerhans 394
J
Jordan 61 K
keratinocytes 422
ketoacidosis 528
ketogenic diet 597
kidney 444, 446, 611
- disease 24, 552
- disease, chronic - See: CKD
killer cell 428
knee cartilage loss 142 kyphosis 255
L
lactating mothers 633
lamotrigine 596
lanolin 73
latent effects 702
latitude 139, 226, 656
and diabetes type 1 530, 615
leukocyte telomere 180
linear growth 128
lipoprotein particles 552
liver 444, 446
- meat 56
low birth weight 616
low-cost therapy 248
lower respiratory tract infection 288
low income countries 651
lungs
- function in rats 285
- production of vitamin D in ~ 261
lymphocytes 429, 475, 478, 489
lymphoid tissue 491 M
macrophages 329, 331, 375
mandibular bone mass 245
MART-10 452
mast cells 231 maternal
- bone density loss 633
- bone mineral resorption 632
- fertility 672
- hypervitaminosis D 660
- intake 643
- supplements 620
- vitamin D status 128
matrix metalloproteinases - See: MMPs
maxacalcitol 199
MCTD 490 mDC 375
MDR 321, 325 melanin 20 melanocytes 420 melanoma
- aetiology 425
- cumulative hazard ratio 421
- genetic predisposition 419
- risk 424
- sunburn 419 mesenchymal stem cell 127 metabolic
- consumption 155
syndrome 427, 506 metalloproteinases 243
metastasis 399
microsomal enzymes 445
microvascular complications 533
milk fortification program 54
mineral
- homeostasis 98
- metabolism 195
mitochondrial
- biogenesis 513
- enzymes 445
mitogen activated protein kinase 450
MMPs 331
mobility 163 mole 418
- atypical ~ syndrome phenotype 419 monocytes 613
mood 24 mortality 41
- after transplantation 575
- risk for rickets 178
- risk reduction 179 MS 24, 212, 232, 381, 679
- primary progressive ~ 475
- relapse 476, 478
- risk factor 228
- secondary progressive ~ 475
supplementation 476
multidrug-resistant - See: MDR multiple
- primary tumours 424
- sclerosis - See: MS murine
- colitis model 376
- models 229 muscle 504
- biopsy 104
- function 157
- insulin-responsive tissue 510
- pain 509
- strength 23, 88
weakness 45, 70, 104, 108
muscle cell 98
- differentiation 106
- proliferation 106
- striated 106 muscle fibers
- composition 105
fast twitch (type II) 71
musculoskeletal
- health 91
- outcomes 158
- pain 104
symptoms 124
mushrooms 56
mycobacteria
- immunity to ~ 330
infections 329
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 332, 572
myeloid
- cells 477
dendritic cells - See: mDC
myoblast cytoskeleton 106 myogenic differentiation 510
N
native form 201
necrotic cell populations 399
neoadjuvant therapy 468
neonatal
- immune function 659
- markers of inflammation 613
- period 609
supplementation 620
neonate anthropometry 650, 658
nephrolithiasis 41, 47
nephroprotective role 575
neurological function 72
nitric oxide 214
NMSC 209
NNRTI 305
NOD 329
non-calcemic
- benefits 611
functions 138
non-genomic effects 107, 423
non-melanoma skin cancer - See: NMSC
non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor - See: NNRTI
non-skeletal benefits 22
non-specific pain 23
non-specific rheumatic diseases 105
normoglycemia 504
NRTI 307
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor – See: NRTI
nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain
- See: NOD
nulliparous women 642
O
OA 142
obese females 488
obesity 19, 243, 299, 393, 507, 514, 598, 695
in epilepsy patients 591
obstructed labor 674
omega-3 fatty acids 556
oncogene 451
optimal level 142
ossification 117
osteoarthritis - See: OA
osteoblasts 535
osteocalcin 513, 534
osteoclastic progenitors 44
osteocytes 127
osteoid seams 44
osteomalacia 14, 54, 117, 527, 652
- in successive pregnancies 652
muscle biopsy in ~ patients 104
osteopenia of prematurity 617
osteoporosis 109, 244, 534
- after transplantation 568
- definition of ~ 84 oxcarbazepine 595 oxidative
- injuries 334
- stress 334, 420
P
paediatric renal transplantation recipients 568
pale-skinned people 419
pancreas 535
pancreatic
- adenocarcinoma - See: PCA
- cell destruction 528
- insufficiency 254
islet autoimmunity 678
pancreatic cancer 184
- risk 402
- sunlight 402
- treatment 395
pancreatic (3-cells 504, 505, 507, 510, 528,673
dysfunction 528, 551
pancreatitis 393
parathyroid
- gland 195, 201
- hormone - See: PTH
- levels 430
- suppression 17
parental resistance to supplementation 609
parenteral cholecalciferol 660
paricalcitol 199 PBMC 488, 491
PCA 392
peak
- bone mass 84
infection rates 214
pelvic opening 208, 652
perinatal pulmonary maturation 285
periodontitis 674
- aggressive 358
- definition 357
- during pregnancy 244
prevalence 242 periosteal apposition 117
peripheral
- blood mononuclear cells - See: PBMC
- tissue 200
PGs 333
phagocytes 324
phagocytosis 246, 329
pharmacological dose therapy 657
phenobarbital 593
phosphate
- binders 196
uptake 107
phosphorus homeostasis 176
photoadaption 421
photoprotective 422
phototherapy 257
physical
- activity levels 148
performance 46
pigmentary genotypes 418
pigmentation 208, 651
- dark 637
- pale skin 419 pigmented skin 651
PIs 305
placental
- CYP24A1 gene promoter 671
- infection modulation 613
transfer 680
plaque stability 552
plasma concentration 617
pleiotropic
- functions 276
steroid hormone 138
pneumonia 287, 614
polycystic ovary syndrome 509
polymorphisms 323
- in toll-like receptors 328
in VDR gene 126
polytherapy 592
post-menopausal
- bone health 633
- women 18, 104, 162, 421, 557
post-natal growth 658
post-transplant bone loss 566, 568
postural instability 71
precursor lesions 418
preeclampsia 25, 120, 533, 672
supplementation 673
pregnancy 120, 609
- adolescent 652
- adverse 533
- hormones 529
- periodontitis 244
- supplementation 609, 658, 680
untreated HIV-infected women 308
pregnant women 278, 529, 534, 650
- oral health 245
premalignant lesions 394
premenarcheal girls 123
prepubertal girls 638
preterm infants 616
rachitic respiratory distress 617
primary prevention trial 697
primidone 593
proliferation 445, 476
- of T cells 324
prostaglandins - See: Pgs
prostate
- cancer 184, 444, 572
- cell growth 449
- cells 447, 450, 451
tissue 448
prostatic hypertrophy 449
protease inhibitors - See: Pis
proteinuria 194, 574
psoriasis 25, 453
psoriatric arthritis patients 490
psychomotor function 108
PTH 87, 102, 119, 196, 259, 372, 451, 511, 512, 549, 568, 574, 609, 617
- insulin sensitivity 512
- levels 260
- secretion 453
suppression 198 public health programs 63
pulmonary
- disease 254
infections 284
purdah (use of veils) 651
putative risk factor 476
pyrazinamide 334
R
RA 138, 214, 378, 490
- patients 140
rachitic respiratory distress 617
racial backgrounds 57
esophageal cancer 465
RANKL 230
RAS 202, 551, 574
RDA 89, 696
reactive
- nitrogen intermediates - See: RNI
- oxygen species - See: ROS receptor
- activator of NFkB ligand - See: RANKL
- agonists 430
recommended dietary allowance - See: RDA
recruitment strategy 697
reflux esophagitis 466
relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis - See:RRMS
remineralization 363
renal
- cells 450
- failure 330
- osteodystrophy 197
- reabsorption of calcium 632
- stones 161, 162, 179, 430 renal patients
- arteriosclerosis 570
- bone fracture 197
- endothelial dysfunction 570
- supplementation 575
renal transplantation recipients 567
- cancer 571
- paediatric 568
- skin cancer 571
- supplementation 575 renin-angiotensin system - See: RAS respiratory
- epithelial cells 286
- muscle weakness 288
- tract infections 284
- viral infections 213 rheumatoid arthritis - See: RA
rickets 14, 117, 527
- and antiseizure drugs 589
- resurgence 18, 610, 618, 634
- risk factors 635 risk factors 279
- during fetal period and lactation 636
RNI 334 ROS 333
RRMS 475
S
safety limit 696
sarcopenia 42, 45, 71
schizophrenia 678
screening 619
secosteroid hormone 276
seizures 588
selective receptor modulator concept 101
serum
- biomarkers 21
- hydroxyvitamin D 40, 101, 506, 526
- insulin 507
- levels 40, 432
- minimal level 430
- parathyroid hormone 502
- triglycerides 508
sex specific impact of cancer 184
SGA 120, 676
side effects 696
signaling pathways 505
Simplified Acute Physiology Score II 179
single-nucleotide polymorphism - See: SNP
skeletal
- bone resorption 163
- craniotabes in newborns 680
- mineralization 45
- muscle insulin resistance 509
- pain 104 skin 40
- aging 148
- cancer 183
- cancer in renal transplantation recipients
- cancer, nonmelanoma - See: NMSC
- cancer prevention 399
- cancer risk 418
- colour 426, 431
- pale 419
pigmentation 208, 651
type 281
UVB irradiation 227
SLE 378, 379, 490, 492
small for gestational age - See: SGA smoking 321
SNP 326, 423, 427, 614
solar elastosis 426 spaying index 118
SPB 674
spontaneous preterm birth - See: SPB
squamous
- cell carcinomas 464
dysplasia 467
standardized measuring method 60
statistical power 700
striated muscle cells 106 stunted growth 116, 612
sufficiency
- definition 656 sunburn
- melanoma risk 419
sun exposure 14, 226, 256, 656
- children 280
- decreased cutaneous penetration 380
- dental caries 362
- epilepsy patients 592
- pancreatic cancer 402
- regular 422
- seasonal variety 701
- tuberculosis treatment 331 sunscreen 20, 634
supplementation 57, 75, 109, 123, 141, 151,245, 429, 432
- adverse effects 122
- and cardiovascular health 570
- birth weight/length 676
- developing countries 657
- during lactation 633
- efficacy 156
- form 155
- individualisation 257
- nursing homes 59
- responsiveness 123
- seasonal effects 154
- teeth defects 362
- to both mother and infant 642
viral response 572
supra-physiologic dosages 570
supravalvular aortic stenosis 634
surfactants 286
surrogate marker of health 143
survival of CKD patients 201
synovial inflammation 379
systemic lupus erythematosus - See: SLE
T
T cell 376, 573
- homeostasis 476
- response 478
teeth 15
- attachment apparatus 355
composition 354
telomerase activity 180, 399
telomeric aging 180
temperate climates 322
tender joint count 141
tenofovir 307
teriparatide 360
testosterone 72
tetanus toxoid vaccination 490
thymus receptor binding assay 448
thyroid disease patients 490
tibian length 123
tilt of the earth 20
tissue
- diseases 373
- epidermal 376
- inhibitor 488
- mixed connective disease 488
- non-traditional target 98
- vitamin D receptor expression 101
TLRs 326
tobacco smoke 392 toddlers
- outdoor exposure 281 tolerable upper intake level - See: UL
toll-like receptors - See: TLRs
tomography 86, 118
tooth
- development 362
- loss 243, 360, 363
topiramate 596 toxicity 21, 103, 381
- concerns 640
- symptoms 59
TR 566
- cancer 571
- CVD 570
infections 572
transcription-independent effects 423
transplantation 263
- recipients - See: TR
- supplementation 567 Treg cells 380 tuberculosis 331
- cutaneous 422
- immune response 247
- inflammatory process 333
- seasonal variations 322
- sunlight 331 tuberculous meningitis 332 tumor 426
- colon 399
- multiple primary ~s 424
- suppressor 450
U
UC 213 UL 162
ulcerative colitis - See: UC
unhealthy children 89
unwanted systemic effects 373
upper gastrointestinal cancers 467
up-regulation
- of genes 448
- of p27 proteins 398 uremic patients 508
UVB
- exposure 15, 120
- exposure of face only 639
- index for men 210
- radiation 183, 322
- risk of diabetes type 1 530
- treatment 260
UV light 16
- wavelength 227, 233
V
vaccination
- BCG 330
- reduced efficacy 231
tetanus toxoid 490 valproate 594
vascular
- calcification 182, 197, 202
- endothelial growth factor - See: VEGF
- function 552
- inflammation 551
- tissue 548
vBMD 44
VDBP 194, 200, 396, 670
- during pregnancy 671
VDD 650
- definition 549
- predisposition 557
- prevalence 40, 550
- risk groups 40
- secondary 652
- vulnerable subgroups 54
VDR 71, 99, 100, 139, 180, 200, 261, 298, 356, 372, 374, 397, 423, 444, 454, 468, 477, 503, 510, 570, 611, 672, 692
- agonists 573
- alkylating derivative 401
- deficient mice 125, 139
- immuno-staining 286
- muscle cells 106
- phenotype 123
- polymorphism 247, 324, 332, 361, 468, 531, 534, 676
- polymorphism and muscle function 105
- skin cancer 424
tuberculosis patients 324
vegetarian diet 330
VEGF 332
veils 651
Viosterol 16
viral infections 287, 422
vitamin D binding protein - See: VDBP
vitamin D receptor - See: VDR
vitiligo 429
volumetric bone mineral density - See: vBMD
W
wheezing 288 window-glass 20
winter 656
wintertime hypovitaminosis D 24
women of child-bearing age 608

Handbook of Vitamin D – 700 pages – 2013        
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