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Global Vitamin D levels - Aug 2011

Worldwide vitamin D status

Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 25 (2011) 671-680
Natasja M. van Schoor, Ph.D, Senior Epidemiologist a*, Paul Lips, Ph.D, M.D, Professor of Endocrinology b
a EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
b VU University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine Section, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The aim of the present study is to summarize existing literature on worldwide vitamin D status vitamin D levels in adults in different continents and different
25-hydroxyvitamin D countries worldwide.
The best determinant of vitamin D status is the vitamin D deficiency serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D).
Most adults investigators agree that serum 25(OH)D should be higher than 50 nmol/l, but some recommend higher serum levels.
Traditional risk groups for vitamin D deficiency include pregnant women, children, older persons, the institutionalized, and non-western immigrants.
This chapter shows that serum 25(OH)D levels are not only suboptimal in specific risk groups, but also in adults in many countries.
Especially, in the Middle-East and Asia, vitamin D deficiency in adults is highly prevalent.

Fig. 1. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels in Europe. The data come from different studies.14 28

A rectangle around the number indicates that it is a population-based study.

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Fig. 2. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels from different studies in the Middle-East.30 36

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Fig. 3. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels from different studies in Africa.37 43 *) veiled; **) non-veiled.

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Fig. 5. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels in Oceania.53 59

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Fig. 6. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels in North-America.60-68

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Fig. 7. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels in South-America.69-72

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Conclusion

Vitamin D deficiency has a high prevalence over the world, not only in risk groups.
Especially, in the Middle-East and Asia, vitamin D deficiency in adults is highly prevalent.
Traditional risk groups include young children, pregnant women, older persons, the institutionalized, and non-western immigrants.
Recent studies show that adolescents and young adults are at risk for vitamin D deficiency.
Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include low sun exposure, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, skin covering clothes and a diet low in fish and dairy products.

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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
1224 South America.jpg admin 08 Apr, 2012 13:35 11.52 Kb 1620
1223 North America.jpg admin 08 Apr, 2012 13:34 12.12 Kb 1492
1014 Map Ocenia.jpg admin 16 Jan, 2012 23:48 15.63 Kb 3052
720 Map Africa.png admin 01 Sep, 2011 03:25 73.92 Kb 1774
719 Map Middle East.png admin 01 Sep, 2011 03:25 57.58 Kb 1647
718 Map Europe.png Europe admin 01 Sep, 2011 03:24 103.15 Kb 6761
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