Effect of Serum Cotinine on Vitamin D Serum Concentrations Among American Females with Different Ethnic Backgrounds
Anticancer Research February 2015 vol. 35 no. 2 1211-1218
KIANO REZA MANAVI1⇑, BRENDA P. ALSTON-MILLS2, MARVIN P. THOMPSON3 and JONATHAN C. ALLEN4
1Department of Food, Nutrition and Bioprocessing Sciences; Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, U.S.A.
2Department of Animal Science Raleigh, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, U.S.A.
3Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, U.S.A.
4Department of Food, Nutrition and Bioprocessing Sciences Raleigh, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, U.S.A.
Correspondence to: Dr. Kiano Reza Manavi, Department of Food, Nutrition and Bioprocessing Sciences, Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 1628 Garners Chapel Road. Mt. Olive, NC, 28365 U.S.A. E-mail: kiano_manavi at scientist.com
Vitamin D levels of active female smokers
Black 13 ng, Hispanic 19 ng, White 25 ng
Note: Very similar to the vitamin D levels in another US study
Black 15 ng, Hispanic 20 ng, White 26 ng
Objective: To investigate the effect of blood serum concentration of cotinine among non-smokers, passive/light smokers and active smoker females in the United States population as it compares to vitamin D blood serum concentrations.
Materials and Methods: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that is designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n=22,196).
Results: The analyses demonstrated that among all three smoking categories, black female active smokers have lower vitamin D (13.374 ng/ml), than hispanic (19.213 ng/ml) or white (24.929 ng/ml) females. It was demonstrated that the active smoker black females have the highest percentage of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in the population compared to other ethnic females.
Conclusion: The cotinine blood serum concentrations can also affect vitamin D concentrations in addition to other factors such as gender, ethnicity, dietary supplement intake and sun exposure.