Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Periodontitis Patients in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Study
Oral Health Prev Dent 16 (2018), No. 4 (07.09.2018), Page 327-332, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a40957, PubMed:30175329
Elgendy, Enas Ahmed / Kazem, Hazem Hussein
Abstract fails to mention: (but previous RCTs have details)
- trial duration
- how long before the teeth scaling that the Omega-3 was given
- dose size
- how much benefit
- Periodontitis probably related to low Vitamin D – review June 2018
- Chronic Periodontitis 9.6 times more likely if smoke and have poor Vitamin D Receptor – Aug 2016
- Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis is 3X more likely if too much Vitamin D-Binding Protein – Nov 2016
Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease initiated by bacteria, resulting in bone resorption, tooth loss, and systemic inflammation. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduce periodontitis in animals. We aimed to determine whether DHA supplementation with low-dose aspirin would reduce periodontitis in humans. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel trial lasting 3 mo. Fifty-five adults with moderate periodontitis were randomized to 2,000 mg of DHA or identical soy/corn oil capsules. All participants received 81 mg of aspirin but received no other treatments. We analyzed the primary outcome of per-pocket change in pocket depth using mixed models among teeth with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Secondary outcomes assessed with generalized estimating equations included gingival index, plaque index, and bleeding on probing. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were analyzed for changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukins 6 and 1β (IL-6 and IL-1β). Plasma was analyzed for changes in systemic inflammatory markers, including hsCRP. We confirmed adherence with erythrocyte fatty acid measurement. Forty-six participants completed the trial. While similar at baseline, the proportion of DHA in red blood cell plasma membranes increased from 3.6% ± 0.9% to 6.2% ± 1.6% in the intervention group but did not change among controls. DHA supplementation
- decreased mean pocket depth (-0.29 ± 0.13; p = .03) and
- gingival index (-0.26 ± 0.13; p = .04).
Plaque index and bleeding on probing did not change. Significant adjusted differences were found between DHA and control for both
- gingival crevicular fluid hsCRP (-5.3 ng/mL, standard error [SE] = 2.4, p = .03) and
- IL-1β (-20.1 pg/mL, SE = 8.2, p = .02)
- IL-6 (0.02 pg/mL, SE = 0.71, p = .98) or
- systemic hsCRP (-1.19 mg/L, SE = 0.90, p = .20).
In this randomized controlled trial, aspirin-triggered DHA supplementation significantly improved periodontal outcomes in people with periodontitis, indicating its potential therapeutic efficacy (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01976806).
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Purpose: To investigate changes in periodontal parameters and superoxide dismutase activity after root surface debridement with and without omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3 FA) supplementation in postmenopausal women.
Materials and Methods: Fifty postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis were divided randomly into two groups. Group 1 (control group, n = 25) patients were provided with periodontal treatment in the form of scaling and root planing (SRP) plus soft gelatinous capsules containing only some olive oil, while group 2 (n = 25) received SRP along with systemic administration of omega-3 FAs in the same soft gelatinous capsules. Clinical parameters and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gingival crevicular fluid were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months after therapy.
Results: By the end of the study period, the omega-3-treated group achieved a greater mean
- probing pocket depth reduction, a mean gain in
- clinical attachment level especially in deep periodontal pockets, as well as a
- greater increase in SOD activity (p < 0.01) compared to SRP alone.
Conclusions: Adjunctive omega-3 FAs supplements with SRP reduce periodontal inflammation and improve the status of systemic enzymatic antioxidants in postmenopausal women.