Risk factors for vitamin d deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Intern Med. 2012;51(8):845-50. Epub 2012 Apr 15.
Echida Y, Mochizuki T, Uchida K, Tsuchiya K, Nitta K.
Department of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan.
Objective We conducted a cohort study to identify the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in predialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods An observational study of 135 outpatients with stage 3-5 CKD was undertaken. Clinical and biochemical parameters were analyzed in terms of nutritional status, inflammation, and mineral metabolism in relation to serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].
Levels of 25(OH)D lower than 15 ng/mL were considered to be deficient.
Results The 25(OH)D-deficient group had a higher body mass index (24.1±4.2 kg/m(2) vs. 22.5±4.0 kg/m(2), p=0.0322), and had
more diabetic patients
- 27.9% vs. 3.6%, p=0.0003.
The multivariate analysis revealed that
- body mass index (odds ratio=2.758; 95% CI, 1.048-7.721; p=0.0398),
- the presence of diabetes (odds ratio=7.792; 95% CI, 1.808-55.439; p=0.0043),
- lower hemoglobin concentration (odds ratio=0.297; 95% CI, 0.099-8.732; p=0.821),
- higher serum levels of non-HDL cholesterol (odds ratio=3.570; 95% CI, 1.449-9.442; p=0.0053) and
- triglyceride (odds ratio=2.447; 95% CI, 0.779-1.776; p=0.0258)
were the factors associated with low 25(OH)D levels.
Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was common among the predialysis CKD patients, and the factors identified as being associated with vitamin D deficiency were diabetes and obesity.
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