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COVID infection might prevent infection better than vaccinations - transcript and many studies


SARS-CoV-2 reinfections: Overview of efficacy and duration of natural and hybrid immunity - Pilz Feb 2022

Environmental Research 209 (2022) 11291 . https://doi.org/10.10167j.envres.2022.112911
Stefan Pilz a stefan.pilz at medunigraz.at, Verena Theiler-Schwetz a, Christian Trummer a, Robert Krause b, John P. A. Ioannidis c
a Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, 8036, Graz, Austria
b Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Graz, 8036, Graz, Austria
c Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology and Population Health, Biomedical Data Science, and Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA

Seroprevalence surveys suggest that more than a third and possibly more than half of the global population has been infected with SARS-CoV-2 by early 2022. As large numbers of people continue to be infected, the efficacy and duration of natural immunity in terms of protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfections and severe disease is of crucial significance for the future. This narrative review provides an overview on epidemiological studies addressing this issue. National surveys covering 2020-2021 documented that a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a significantly reduced risk of reinfections with efficacy lasting for at least one year and only relatively moderate waning immunity.
Importantly, natural immunity showed roughly similar effect sizes regarding protection against reinfection across different SARS-CoV-2 variants, with the exception of the Omicron variant for which data are just emerging before final conclusions can be drawn. Risk of hospitalizations and deaths was also reduced in SARS-CoV-2 reinfections versus primary infections.
Observational studies indicate that natural immunity may offer equal or greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections compared to individuals receiving two doses of an mRNA vaccine, but data are not fully consistent. The combination of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and a respective vaccination, termed hybrid immunity, seems to confer the greatest protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections, but several knowledge gaps remain regarding this issue. Natural immunity should be considered for public health policy regarding SARS-CoV-2.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Video interview of Pilz by Dr. Campbell Feb 17 - with transcript

YouTube 36 minutes

Computer transcript - will have some errors, but costs only 5 cents/min instead of 80 cents/minute
:00:00.6 Dr. Campbell: I send, I think we are recording. Thank you very much for coming on this on this podcast, and also thank you for doing it in English, because if we're doing it in German, I think I might struggle quite a bit, so it's that step and you're a medical doctor, you're a doctor of research, your PhD, you're consultant for Endocrinology. I know you've got a special interest in in the infinitely complex disease of diabetes as well, you have a consultant in internal medicine or general practitioner, and I believe you're currently an associate professor in the department of medicine, endocrinology and Diablo... In graphs, in Austria? Yes, yeah. Good, and you did a PhD from the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in Amsterdam, so been around you up quite a bit. So we want to talk about what we might call natural immunity, I guess, can you just sort of introduce this... What is this concept of natural immunity? What is it? How does it occur?

0:01:04.7 Dr. Piltz: I have the epidemiological feint perspective when I look at this, and the way I look at this is very simple, I just wanna look at patients who had Astin sections and then I wanna know our day protected afterwards, and how long are they protected? We can discuss for hours about immunology, I'm not an immunologist, because I think we have to focus clinical endpoints on clinical data, that is really what matters, and you see a lot of studies measuring antibodies, measuring T-sales pieces and whatever... What I wanna know is just, am I protected after infection, how efficient is this protection, and how long does this protection list, and there's a very simple questions, and that is what we wanted to address in our research.

0:01:54.8 Dr. Campbell: Absolutely. Let's go for it then, and I think we should say We've been overstating your paper for the past few days is quite excellent, it's available as a free download, so we'll put the link on and people can get it, and I must say I did find it very accessible that any intelligent lari think it could make sense of that. So let's start off with that then if someone is infected with size Coronavirus 2, they're going to develop some sort of immune response, just talk us through it, the type of immune responses to get how long it's going to last for me, it starts with the assessment of re-infection, because when we look at this, we want to know, do you get the re-infection and at what time to get a re-infection?

0:02:37.1 Dr. Piltz: The first problem that we have, when can we talk about reflections, and usually the definition is that we can only talk about the re-infection three months after your first infection, because many patients have viral chatting for several weeks and months. And that is the first thing we have to consider when we talk about this, and... Well, if I am allowed to start how I called... You stop me. We'll start with that. Well, at the end of 2020, I was not discussing with my wife about covid 19, I always ask her, what is the measure as... What I'm allowed to do and what not, and we couldn't believe that at that time, at the end of 2020, there were virtually no data available for natural service reflection risk in those already infected, and I am convinced that this is very important for two reasons for two main reasons, and the first one is being, of course, the more people are infected and if they are protected, we can bet a predictive Forecourt of this covid 19 pandemic, and that's very important in particular in these days. And the second reason was to go into this research direction is when we started with vaccine campaigns, when we started with vaccination, we had to shore of vaccines the beginning of these campaigns, and it was extremely important to prioritize the vaccines to have the most efficient use of vaccines, and at that time it was important to know about natural immunity, and that's why we started to look at this in Austria, because I still believe we could have saved many more lives with vaccines if we have prioritized within the same risk groups according to the previous infection status and...

0:04:23.0 Dr. Piltz: Well, what I did in the beginning was very simple. In Austria, it was very lucky to have access to the Austrian National Data that were released by Francia and I could collaborate with this team, and we had a very simple concept, we looked at individuals in Austria, where does Ascot infection the first wave? And then we re-assessed this group of previously infected patients six to eight months later, and we compared their infection risk with the rest of Austria, and we found a 91 protection against re-infection in this group, so we had a huge effect size. Really have a huge effect as for protection against re-infection with SAS cut, and this was after six to eight months, so we already... At that time, this was one year ago when we released this regional study, we knew that natural immunity lasted for at least six to eight months, and there was no sign of waning in our studies, so we knew we could expect that naturally immunity lasts quite long and at the moment with more studies coming up with more studies confirming about this effect size of 8, 18, 90% for natural immunity, in terms of protection against re-infection, we see longer and longer follow-up periods, and we do have data now from the United States, there was the group I came and Roth Berg and they published that even more than 30, 90 days after your first infection, you do have a significant protection in the range of 87%, so we know naturally immunity, you get a high protection against re-infection and also can severe disease, and this is lasting for more than one year, and from the evidence we have, there is only, if at all, a moderate waning immunity of over one year, and it will last more than one year.

0:06:26.1 Dr. Piltz: That is also what we know and that's a particular importance when we look at the next season, so those were... In fact, the this season, they will also have some kind of protection, a very good protection against re-infection the next winter, and this really matters, and if I may continue, I think that at the moment with the Omicron wave, we see that is protection, also natural immunity, really works because you see we have a lower proportion of hospitalizations and of that, and you know in the beginning there was a discussion, maybe Omicron is such a mild disease, it's not that severe as the other variants, but we know right now that the major reason why Omicron is so mild. Is not that Macomber SE. It is because we have such a high immunity in the population, of course, it's vaccine in Houston and its natural immunity, and we have countries where we see going, this number numbers going down in terms of hospitalization, and that's where we have a high vaccination uptake, but also countries take Africa or South Africa, or we don't have that, and we see these numbers going down, so I think we are at the moment with this working together of vaccines and a natural immunity, somewhere at the end of this, of this covid 19 pandemic and this are really, really important use for everyone and we should be happy...

0:07:54.3 Dr. Piltz: Very, very happy about this. Yeah.

0:07:56.0 Dr. Campbell: Yeah, absolutely. Then the first to encourage me when I learned that in the 2002-2003 Sakharov Rus one outbreak, people still have neutralizing immunity and clinical protection, that 17 years later in 2020, so you're saying we're getting like 87% protection after 390 days. What's kind of your best estimate about the longevity, and you think it could be years or into a decade or more, like the original silver into... What do you think...

0:08:29.0 Dr. Piltz: I mean, I'm focusing on clinical data, so we don't have the clinical data for many years, and there's always some uncertainty around this data we have fires, we have confounding in epidemiological studies, but from immunological studies, from antibody data and also what you mentioned from measuring other parameters of immune system, we could estimate, we could expect it less for several years, so this is what we can really, really assume for national immunity, and you mentioned we also have other coronaviruses that are also endemic in our population, and these do not cross a lot of harm to us, because we have our first infection is when we are child, so in three, four or five years old, and then we could re-infect and re-infect and Reinert and we build up natural immunity and it doesn't do harm, and some colleagues of mine... There's great science papers about that, they assume that what will remain from sources first infection as a child, he has a young child, and then we get... In fact, that are... In fact, that... And when we're old, and in 10 or 20 years, we will have many old people, but they have open, infected, infected, infected and Tamil times and build up their natural immunity.

0:09:49.7 Dr. Piltz: And the good thing about cascades that the first infection as a child is very, very mild, so also compared to the flu, that's a very mild infection, and we're very lucky that this is the case, and this will probably remain in a few years ahead from now, but of course, these are on the estimations based on the data that we have, and it's never black and white, white picture, but I think that the data on natural immunity are very, very important in particular, because we know at the beginning of 2022, we can estimate that probably... More than half of the world's population has already be infected with sucrose, what we know when we're watching this data on World meter and all the this reports on national infection data, we know that we do not capture... We do not capture most of the infections and we know if we have a very perfect test strategy, we may detect every second infection, but for low-income comes the surveys or there are mid-analysis estimating that you detect one infection for 62 occurring in such countries. So more than half of the worlds population seems to be infected right now, they have a good production, a very efficient protection, and this is long lasting, so these are extremely good news, and therefore I think these days coming to an end of this covid 19 pandemic, and yeah, the question is, of course, how do I test all this and how to change the measures against covid 19 and how to balance the costs, efforts and time that we put into the fight against covid 19.

0:11:37.6 Dr. Piltz: I think vaccines were very, very important and a very, very effective and this was really great that we have time available and also vaccinated three times, so I'm a big fan of that, but natural immunity has to be considerate, and that's very important, and that's why I'm very happy to have to interview with you.

0:11:57.4 Dr. Campbell: Yeah, so the practical implications of this are, the way I see this, it's almost like a generating active immunity on top of the immunity we already have from the vaccines, so like you... Thankfully, I've had three doses of vaccine when I'm infected with... On my Cron, I haven't known been infected whether... Yeah, but when I am, I'll be protected yet still, even though and protected from the vaccine, am I right in saying that the Omicron will give me a big immune boost as well?

0:12:28.0 Dr. Piltz: Yes, of course. I think we have solid data from this, they are great data from Israel, from Qatar, and also from the US, and just yesterday from the UK, serene siren study was publishing in diagonal of medicine, and they all show that his term hybrid immunity, so persons who received a vaccine and two had an infection either before or after the vaccine, that seems to be the best form of protection against... As of Jan, against covid 19. And I just quote a paper from yesterday in the New England, and there they write, well, our finding of greater protection associated with infection, acquired immunity to vaccine immunity, so it should be not a battle between vaccine in Usenet and the natural immunity. Although the data that we have from observational studies seem to suggest that when you compare to doses of an MRNA vaccine with natural immunity, it seems to be equal even if not better for natural immunity, and this is very great news for the world.

0:13:36.9 Dr. Campbell: HighTower was data from New York and California on that from the CDC. The people who'd had natural infection without vaccination actually had better protection than people who have two doses of vaccine, because the other factor there is that we know that the protection from the vaccine was... It goes down. So do you think that the natural immunity is going to last for much longer than the vaccine-induced immunity...

0:14:05.0 Dr. Piltz: I mean, the data on this are quite clear from epidemiological studies, so with the vaccines you have opposed, you have a very, very good protection in the first few months after that, but you have a relatively steep, deep decline afterward sent for natural immunity. We've seen many studies that it's really very, very stable and only moderately waning over this time, and well, of course, no data from the CDC, and I think this is very important that this data come up, but it's sad that this data haven't been published previously because many countries did not anyhow, like the US, consider previous infection in terms of any measures against covid, but when we compare it, the course of the immunity after vaccines and after infection, we see it after infection, it's really very, very stable from all the studies we see, is it clinical studies, or is it starts to mature antibodies or other parameters of the immune system, and that are very... Very good news for all of us. So

0:15:12.9 Dr. Campbell: For someone like me that's been vaccinated, my vaccine immunity is waning quite rapidly now, because it's maybe four months since my last facing, so that's going down quite rapidly, and I know that armories likely to give me absolutely minimal disease unless I'm really unfortunate. And that's going to give me a boost which could last for years or a decade, so the way I see it is my vaccines have given me this opportunity to be safely infected with Oneonta the longer term, as we move into indemnity, as my thinking reasonable there do you think

0:15:49.8 Dr. Piltz: It's, of course reasonable, but it's very difficult for me as a doctor, as Dr, working as a university hospital to make any recommendations for this, but of course, we can break it down to simple terms, I think we will get infected, so almost everyone will get an infection, and the question is, when is the best time to get your infection, and that's probably quite a few months after you receive the accents, and we know that the protection for the vaccine will go down a year, we are more after... And we'll make it clear. Dr. Fitton myself, I'm not giving medical advice. We're not too hot to do...

0:16:28.5 Dr. Campbell: Thank you, this is a really an academic discussion, he is not better striving for you, I am not prescribing for you, this is an academic discussion that you may happen... It defined interesting because I know you as an individual.

0:16:42.3 Dr. Piltz: But I also want to add, when we look at the moment that many studies that are released at look at vaccine efficacy and has natural immunity, we always have to consider the absolute risks. So when we started with the first vaccine studies, the risk, the background risk was very high, and the 90% production is about this decrease, but when the absolute risk is very low for death and for hospitalization, even a 90% reduction from that starting point is only a minimal difference. So we have to be very cautious with interpreting studies, what we have to ask what is the absolute worst or risk of dying of hospitalization, or what are kind of clinical end point we have... And as we see with the oricon wave that the Apple risk of mortality and of hospitalization decreases in the whole group, we have to ask the question, Do we have to rethink the risk and benefit ratio also vaccines in the future, this will be very, very challenging because the more immunity we build up in the population and the less severe infections will mean we can expect this also after this, in this Omicron wave, the more we have to ask about the risk benefit ratio of vaccines and what we have to consider what has not been paid so much attempt attention as I would have liked it to be, is the deep radiant of the risk increase with age.

0:18:17.7 Dr. Piltz: So we know that even if you are unvaccinated is a very young healthy woman, you have a lower risk when you get infected with a soft-diced 19 versus an older person who is vaccinated, and we have to consider, doesn't incorporate this also in our strategies in terms of content.

0:18:39.3 Dr. Campbell: I got vaccinated, it was absolutely 100% clear that my chances of delivering for another year on this planet were much greater if I were to be vaccinated and I'm quite all, but if we take someone of your age group, the risk is much less so we have to look at the absolute risk, which really is your risk of being hospitalized or dying as a citizen of the entire country, not comparing it to a subgroup H Grove out of particular infection is the absolute risk. That's important, and I think what we can say with some certainty is that the risk benefit analysis of vaccination has now changed against vaccination. Now, this is not an anti-vax statement by any means. But the benefit that a vaccination might give me now with the LaPlace amount of immunity we have and somewhat reduce pathogenicity of Omicron... Yes, has changed the balance of that equation, it's something that needs to be... To be reconsidered and because what we always do in healthcare, you know this better than I do, you're always saying, Well, this could help this patient, but what is the risk? It's always this benefit risk, so a patient is very likely to die, we might carry out a very high risk procedure because it's their last chance, I've defiled people many times, and that's a very high risk procedure, but the alternative were certain death, whereas when we're dealing with it, with a more subtle intervention, we have to look at that now that risk benefit analysis much, much more carefully.

0:20:09.6 Dr. Campbell: What is that? Right, did you agree with that, that?

0:20:12.2 Dr. Piltz: I totally agree with this. I think this... But these are very challenging discussion is a future... And in particular, when it comes to children, when we know most of the children are so many children have already been infected and the risk is quite low, so there... It's very hard to say. Is it justified or not? That's a very challenging discussion. I want to... So I don't wanna give any recommendation regarding the...

0:20:36.8 Dr. Campbell: No, we're not prescribed, we're not doing that, but we know in my country at least 85% of children have got antibodies, and of course they've got antibodies, that's the absolute minimum that will enjoy some degree of protection because in many of the anti-bodies would have dropped below the 42-9 meme detection limits, some will be way below that, but of course they also love their memory be and T-Cells, which has we've been sharing is probably going to give immunity for some years, which is remarkably good news, but it's great to hear you saying this because I set him on to my camera and talk to myself quite a lot, making YouTube videos, but good to talk to someone, to talk to someone who's... Who's been re-actively researching this field... That is brilliant. What do you think about the idea of testing people for antibodies or other forms of immunity before we advise vaccination, do you think seem so far we've done a one-size-fit, sordid, you mentioned this at the start of this, that we were vaccinating everyone where they did have the immunity or not, therefore, potentially not using vaccines Toto the best of their potential, do you think we should be doing antibody tests before we do vaccination to take off the way this one-size-fits-all sort of program we have now...

0:21:52.4 Dr. Piltz: There have been many discussions about this, I think we still do not have the evidence that this really brings us benefits, it may seem logical on the first... On the first side, but we bring a lot of complexity into this topic and our whole strategy, we are safe to consider the cost... No test has a perfect... Is perfect. In terms of sensitivity and specificity, and I think at this stage, I'm not a fan of doing this. We probably would have needed the studies showing that this is effective, is effectively working. I think it's probably too late to incorporate such a strategy, it might have been of use in the beginning, but right now, I think you mentioned it, so many people already do have immunity, but of course it's worth considering, but from my point of us... My personal opinion, I think it brings too much complexity, cost sense On intertidal to have the best tests, so laboratory tests, they can be for positive or negative and so on, and you have costs, and I think cost is something we really have to reconsider these days because we have put so much costs and efforts identified against covid 19 and we have to think, Is this really cost effective what we're doing at the moment, because we spend so much money into all of this, and is this money better used for other topics like smoking, hypotension, or dollar and so on.

0:23:28.7 Dr. Piltz: We have to bring everything into perspective in the context and see where our efforts and our money best spend to produce the best results, and that is a question we have to ask in 2022 or things... Yeah, yeah.

0:23:42.4 Dr. Campbell: You're right. We're certainly not going to an or disease is to research in my lifetime, and I don't think you are going to in pathology in your career either as we move to endemic and patients are going to be potentially re-infected with this every season potentially. Do you think there's going to be an ongoing risk to people with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic lung disease, heart disease, all these comorbidities are gonna be a longing threat to them, or

0:24:12.0 Dr. Piltz: Is there immunity... Go to sort of reduce the risk. Do you think the risk is definitely reduced, this is what we see in terms of relative risk, we have such a huge risk reduction, it's never black and white and told you in the beginning, so some sort of risk and may remain but it should not have that impact that it had in the beginning, because we already saw this medication of this artisan mic, so in the future waves there may be huge numbers of infections, but there will not cost the harm that we have seen in the beginning of Hispanic. The problem is, when we come to the end of hypodermic, according to my knowledge, we don't have a crystal clear definition, what is the end of this comedic? I didn't find it and with on different number and said, now we are coming to an end, but I think we have to rethink the balance between efforts, costs, time, attention, we spend on it, this compared to other very important topics and according to my opinion, we are... At the end, these days of the covid 91 pandemic, this does not mean that there is no harm with sastre in future years and decades, there may be people that the harm but is fire us, but it should not have that much attention and we should not spend so many money efforts into this into this topic.

0:25:37.5 Dr. Campbell: What are we going to do carry on doing mass testing for the entire population for the next 10 years, this is gonna remain anemic to that there's gonna be after to be a time when it's cut off, so the way I see this, there was a time when the only immunity on the planet to save CO2 was natural immunity, then when there was a time when we had a vaccine immunity, and now that's leading into a time of hybrid immunity, and unless we're gonna keep vaccinating people forever and ever, which again, it's just not really practical or desirable, we could go on to a period of indemnity where all of the immunity... It is natural. In fact, we have to get to that stage, don't we, at some point in five or 10 years time into the future, people are gonna have very high levels of unity to size Coronavirus to, but that will all be naturally induced unless we carry on vaccinating that is all going to be naturally induced them, I'm just so pleased to hear your optimism that you... That's going to lead to an... 'cause that's been the way my thinking is developing, but it's really good to hear now, in terms of future variants, am I right in thinking that people that have developed immunity to Delta, they've got lots of breakthrough infections with a Macron, so Delta didn't provide good protection against a micron, but my understanding is that Macron does provide some protection against...

0:27:07.8 Dr. Piltz: Pretty good protection against Delta is not what you understand... To break it down, what we have with the epidemiological data, we see no huge differences between all those variants that we had, we had to alter the better the delta, the Omicron, and we always have to think about when we have natural immunity, we're exposed to the whole virus, so to all parts of the virus, we are exposed versus with the vaccines, we have only part of the virus that we're exposed to, our immune system reacts to with the virus infection, with Ascot, we have all parts of the virus, and even if it changes there are some other parts where immune system is primed and it's protecting us, so there are no... Huge difference is also with Omicron because just a few days ago, a group from Qatar, they looked at the natural protection against Omicron, and what they've seen as well, you're more likely to get re-infection, but your protection against death and hospitalization in particular, can tributes is the same, it's about the same. So you're more likely to get the infection probably with some future variants like with Omicron, after your first infection was another variant, but you're very well protected against severe disease, and that is what we've seen with the oricon variant, at least in CTA, that are also very, very good news for the first.

0:28:37.4 Dr. Campbell: So my understanding is there's at least 24 epitopes in the virus... Am I right in thinking? So to 24 antigenic components, the body recognizes as forms the body, generating 24 different, slightly different types of antibody to those 24 epitopes.

0:28:57.3 Dr. Piltz: I mean, I'm not an immunologist, I have to be honest. I want to stick with what I know. That's fine, it's fine to expertise, and of course, I know that the response to the virus and have been wonderful discussions and papers from this also from a guy from Osteen grama, he's an expert in that, but of course, the immune system is exposed to every part of deft of the virus as a careers immune reaction at many, many different antibodies, and of course, if you have problems with the spike protein and it can enter, it can cost infection, there are other parts of the immune system that work, but we should not only think about and discuss about antibodies, because also for natural immunity, there is a study from the UK showing that when you have the primary infection with Salcedo, and even if you had no anti-Iris measure it, you even had a high protection against re-infection. So it's not only about The Antipodes, definitely not, and we had so many discussions, so many news reports on antivirus studies and people asking for the antivirus, but there's much more than that, it's all an incomplete picture of immune response, you can say, but...

0:30:18.5 Dr. Piltz: I'm not an immunology, and I do not want to pretend to be one... There are so many smart people there. I looked at epidemiology and that's why... No.

0:30:28.8 Dr. Campbell: That's great. Is fascinating to hear you say that people with essentially non-detectable antibodies still very high levels of protection, and we assume that's all these B and T-cells and probably doesn't other mechanisms that humanity hasn't discovered yet. The immune system is an amazing thing, but the message I'm getting there is you are epidemiological optimistic, the Omicron infection is going to basically give us fairly good levels of protection against any likely future size Coronavirus to Varian.

0:31:05.1 Dr. Piltz: Yes, I think we can be pretty sure. It's never 100%. We do not know about the future, it can always happen that a new Verint and so on is coming up, but from the past, we had this different variance, so we had many different variants already, and always in the beginning, there were some reports where we have no protection after natural immunity, there's no protection with the vaccines, it's more severe and we have a bigger problem than before, it was always the same, or with each of the waves we had, and always, it turned out afterwards that the protection was about the same as about similar Mahar different, we have to admit that, but it was not a completely different story, and so I would ask why should it be different... Completely different in the future, we already had this different waves with different variants, and the immune system, natural immunity always work. So why should it be different in the future...

0:31:58.2 Dr. Campbell: That makes perfect sense. Is there any tips you could give me to increase my personal and unity... I mean.

0:32:04.6 Dr. Piltz: Of course. Healthy, healthy.

0:32:06.4 Dr. Campbell: Please do I need all the home...

0:32:10.5 Dr. Piltz: Healthy lifestyle.

0:32:12.9 Dr. Campbell: You have to be in good condition. In a good, healthy condition, doing sports, doing... Keeping your body weight in a reasonable range and looking at nutrition, and I've been working along with vitamin d and so on, so we talk hours about this, but I think I'd like just a little bit on vitamin d, if that's okay. I mean, my understanding is that if you have a vitamin d deficiency, that's certainly going to lead to immunodeficiency... Is that basically correct?

0:32:46.8 Dr. Piltz: I mean, I wanna come to the RCD data that we have a first, we have the background for vitamin d, that it has an effect on all the immune cells, all the immune as that you have a receptive of vitamin d, So if this is of no sense that nature would have made a big mistake because you have the system of vitamin d, and there are studies before the iconic that have shown us in randomized placebo control trials that when you supplement vitamin d versus placebo, you have to reduce risk of respite or a tract infections, and this was met analysis of RCT, so the highest evidence level that we can show, and based on this, there's quite good evidence that you have a protection as a preventive measure if you are deficient in vitamin, you supplement it against respiratory infections. So that are very good news for vitamin d, and of course it has enormous effects on our immune system, and there are also some evidence for autoimmune diseases for vitamin d. Yeah.

0:33:56.7 Dr. Campbell: We could talk for hours on this side, there's a lot optimum level to Rainford basic list. So if you're deficient, you're going to get more respiratory one is, but if you've got a good level and your top it up even further, that's probably not going to give you additional protection is that...

0:34:11.3 Dr. Piltz: That is status of course, correct, you can... Everything that has an effect, you can overdose, so that is also with vitamin d, but when you're severely deficient and you supplement this or you increase vitamin d by natural food or by sun exposure, and you can really improve your vitamin d status. And this has an impact also on immune system...

0:34:31.8 Dr. Campbell: Yes, yeah. So the easiest part of the improvement to the immune system is the easiest to get... Yeah, if someone's very deficient, you can... You can just give that a bit... A bit of a boost. Yeah, brilliant. So sound so much for that, you certainly can be in order and reassured me, Annas, lute, brilliant. Is there anything else that we should really cover that you think that things have missed, and

0:34:56.7 Dr. Piltz: I think it was really a pleasure for me to talk to you and if... I also have this opportunity, you have such a big audience. And thank you for that. I really appreciate this.

0:35:07.8 Dr. Campbell: Tower put links to staff and paper with others, it should be mentioned as a net hot, but the thing I really liked about this paper, this is readable, you don't have to be a doctor or an epidemiologist to read this, the average intelligent retreat can really make sense of that and just cram full of fascinating arguments for the... Well, we have no option. We have to go down the natural immunity route, and I just agree with that. Absolutely, completely. Thank you so much and thank your family for giving us a break from you... Are you working nice tonight. Yeah, you're working tonight. Or today, I'm not working on it at a time was my wife and my son, and I think you emailed me about 113191, you're at work, so I think you've been working pretty late, and I guess you've had a pretty busy period. Wonder, Stefan, thank you. And if you ever wanna come back... Of course. More than welcome, wonderful to have you. Fascinating stuff and great to get it from a clinician who's got the scientific background as well, so... It's wonderful, thank you.

0:36:18.0 Dr. Piltz: Okay, thank you, ichthyo.



New study shows natural immunity to COVID has enduring strength - Feb 2022

MDEdge

  • "It’s a matter of quality, not quantity. That’s the gist of a new Israeli study that shows that unvaccinated people with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection create antibodies that are more effective in the long run compared with others who were vaccinated but never infected."

Natural Immunity Lasts For At Least 18 Months: Study - Feb 2022

Invesbrain

  • “Our study findings demonstrate that while double dose vaccination boosted the IgG titers in recovered individuals 161 times, this “boost” was relatively short-lived. The unvaccinated recovered individuals, in contrast, continued to show a steady decline but detectable antibody levels. We do believe that further studies are required to re-evaluate the timing and dose regimen of vaccines for an adequate immune response in recovered individuals,” Zaidi said.

 PREPRINT


Question by VitaminDWiki - Will some future COVID infections be mainly among the vaccinated?

Some later answers


VitaminDWiki pages with VACCIN in the title (188 as of Oct 2022)

VACCINation,    VACCINations,    VACCINes,    VACCINe,    VACCINated, etc.
List is automatically updated

Items found: 194
Title Modified
Senate votes again to end COVID emergency, Biden will veto (would end EUA vaccines) - Nov 2022 22 Nov, 2022
A year after 2nd COVID vaccination, stems cells not available to fetus immune system – Nov 2022 14 Nov, 2022
Number of people to treat to prevent 1 case of flu: Vitamin D 4, Vaccination 40 – Feb 2017 10 Nov, 2022
Trivial difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated for cases, hospitalizations, and death - Nov 2022 07 Nov, 2022
Bradford Hill Criteria applied to COVID Vaccinations - Oct 2022 06 Nov, 2022
CDC advised to recommended annual COVID vaccination of all children over 6 months old – Oct 20, 2022 24 Oct, 2022
Problems with vaccine use during a pandemic - Dr. Bossche 2021, 2022 22 Oct, 2022
CDC v-safe vaccination data is finally on-line - Oct 5, 2022 19 Oct, 2022
Is it Time to Characterize COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine as Pharmaceutical Drugs, NOT Vaccines - Oct 2022 16 Oct, 2022
Develop a vaccine instead of a drug, less costly and no chance of being sued - Nov 2014 16 Oct, 2022
COVID infection might prevent infection better than vaccinations - transcript and many studies 11 Oct, 2022
Polio vaccine absolute risk reduction was only 0.01 percent - 2022 10 Oct, 2022
No benefit of Vitamin D to COVID vaccine efficiency (dosing failed to get to 30 ng) - Oct 2022 08 Oct, 2022
The more COVID vaccinations you get, the More Likely you’ll get COVID - Oct 2022 03 Oct, 2022
400 doctors, scientists declare “international medical crisis” due to COVID-19 vaccinations - Sept 2022 02 Oct, 2022
6X increase in excess deaths of children since vaccinations were started - Oct 2022 02 Oct, 2022
Number needed to vaccinate to prevent 1 Omicron death: 30,000 for age 60-70 - Sept 2022 29 Sep, 2022
CDC funded study: 1.3 X Asthma risk if vaccination contained aluminum – Sept 2022 29 Sep, 2022
Pfizer vaccination trial – 1 in 800 actually had a serious adverse event – Sept 2022 28 Sep, 2022
Vaccine injury claims paid: Thailand 45 million dollars, US 0 dollars - March 15, 2022 26 Sep, 2022
Congress members demand FDA Investigate COVID-19 Vaccine Injuries – Sept 2022 26 Sep, 2022
Small Vitamin D doses for a short time never help (not improve vaccination in this case) – RCT Sept 2022 24 Sep, 2022
Regional Excess Deaths strongly associated with COVID vaccination rate (UK) – Sept 2022 09 Sep, 2022
Vaccinations banned in UK if under age 12, US planning on annual vaccinations - Sept 2022 07 Sep, 2022
Better response 6 months after Pfizer vaccinations if higher vitamin D – Aug 2022 27 Aug, 2022
Vitamin D improves Sinovac vaccine (fast innate response) - July 2022 24 Aug, 2022
Vaccine holdouts aren't Republicans, but those under age 60 where perceived risk is worse than COVID – Dec 2021 21 Aug, 2022
Vaccination pages in VitaminDWiki 21 Aug, 2022
Govt funding to fight COVID: 100 billion dollars for vaccine and anti-viral, perhaps zero for alternatives - Aug 2022 21 Aug, 2022
Cancers are associated with low vitamin D, poor vaccination response and perhaps poor VDR – July 2022 15 Aug, 2022
‘Pandemic of the Boosted’: UK Data Reveal Problem With COVID Vaccinations - July 2022 22 Jul, 2022
COVID deaths are often of fully vaccinated in fully vaccinated countries – June 2022 12 Jul, 2022
Each COVID reinfection causes more severe disease in miltary veterans (independant of vaccination) - July 2022 10 Jul, 2022
Temporary conception problems after vaccinations, etc. - July 2022 10 Jul, 2022
Conceptions less likely after major stress (birth, surgery, major illness, and vaccination in this case) 06 Jul, 2022
2 Vaccinations provided no protection against Omicron infection 6 months later – New England J. of Medicine – June 2022 25 Jun, 2022
A third of healthcare workers took sick leave after Covid vaccination (Germany) - April 2022 22 Jun, 2022
28,859 deaths and 238,412 serious injuries due to vaccines, how many more when add ages 0.5 - 5 – June 2022 21 Jun, 2022
Omicron mutations to avoid vaccinations may get much worse – Bossche June 2022 19 Jun, 2022
89% are vaccinated, but Omicron BA.5 is surging (Portugal) June 2022 07 Jun, 2022
Vaccinations resulted in increased office visits for children 16 months later - Nov 2020 24 May, 2022
Problems after childhood vaccinations - many studies 24 May, 2022
US COVID vaccinations: 52 K disabled, 28 K deaths, 14K heart attacks, etc. - May 6, 2022 19 May, 2022
FDA approved 5-11 vaccine booster (based tiny unpublished study without asking advisory panel) May 2022 17 May, 2022
Vaccinated were 42 percent of US COVID Deaths in Jan-Feb 2022 – April 29, 2022 02 May, 2022
Innate immune suppression by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations - April 2022 22 Apr, 2022
Vaccines were effective, important - PCP survey of May 2021 15 Apr, 2022
Micronutrients such as vitamin D should improve vaccine effectiveness (and decrease side effects) – April 2022 12 Apr, 2022
Pfizer vaccine produced 30 percent more antibodies if more vitamin D – July 2022 08 Apr, 2022
CDC and UK data reveal the COVID vaccines do not prevent cases, transmission, severe illness or deaths - April 3, 2022 04 Apr, 2022
COVID, like influenza, may be able to mutate to avoid vaccines for decades - March 2022 29 Mar, 2022
Increase in COVID Omicron deaths among vaccinated (CA this time) - March 2022 27 Mar, 2022
COVID vaccination: 29 percent higher antibody response if more than 20 ng of vitamin D – March 2022 23 Mar, 2022
Influenza vaccine antibodies not change with Vitamin D – 21 ng or 44 ng – RCT Feb 2019 22 Mar, 2022
Highly Vaccinated Nations Are Driving Global COVID Case Increases - March 14, 2022 20 Mar, 2022
Long-Haul COVID is somewhat less of a problem if vaccinated – Nov 2021 18 Mar, 2022
COVID vaccination makes 6X more antibodies in those having good levels of both vitamin D and Iron – June 2021 13 Feb, 2022
Biden's Inner circle had close ties with Vaccine companies - March 2021 03 Feb, 2022
66 percent of COVID Omicron patients in Ontario hospitals are vaccinated - Jan 23, 2022 23 Jan, 2022
Medications can be mandated to curb an epidemic (SCOTUS, 1905), no evidence that vaccines curb COVID - Jan 2022 18 Jan, 2022
Over 1,000 Studies Published in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals Say the Vaccines Are Dangerous - Jan 5, 2022 11 Jan, 2022
COVID and vaccine spikes damage repair of adaptive immune system DNA (in the lab) - Oct 2021 06 Jan, 2022
COVID-19 cases vs. vaccination (counties and countries) - Sept 2021 04 Jan, 2022
COVID deaths of US seniors decreased after widespread vaccination, but INCREASED among younger – Dec 28, 2021 28 Dec, 2021
COVID vaccine: have warnings, all side effects reported, no mandates (Japan) - Dec 2021 28 Dec, 2021
Far fewer vaccination antibodies against Omicron - Dec 14, 2021 28 Dec, 2021
3rd vaccination against Omicron waning in 10 weeks (2nd jab worthless at 20 weeks - UK data) - Dec 23, 2021 27 Dec, 2021
Vitamin D might augment COVID-19 vaccines – 6 papers as of Dec 2021 26 Dec, 2021
Researchers found flu vaccine increased miscarriage risk by 7X -Sept 2017 24 Dec, 2021
Dr. McCullough on COVID-19: vaccine problems, home treatment – video, slides, transcript – Oct and Dec 2021 22 Dec, 2021
Most of the World’s Vaccines Likely Won’t Prevent Infection From Omicron - NYT Dec 19, 2021 19 Dec, 2021
The more COVID vaccine jabs, the more Omicron infections - Dec 16, 2021 17 Dec, 2021
The more COVID19 vaccine injections, the more omicron infections - Dec 16, 2021, 17 Dec, 2021
Omicron may require fourth vaccine dose, Pfizer says - Dec 10, 2021 17 Dec, 2021
16,000 Physicians and Scientists Agree Kids Shouldn’t Get COVID Vaccine - Dec 15, 2021 16 Dec, 2021
Coronaviruses evolve faster with vaccinations, expect more beyond Omicron - Nov 30, 2021 15 Dec, 2021
HIV vaccine effectivity perhaps increased and side effects reduced if higher Vitamin D - Dec 2021 14 Dec, 2021
Vermont COVID death rates: vaccinated 2X higher than unvaccinated - Dec 2021 12 Dec, 2021
Vaccinated have HIGHER infection rates than unvaxxed (UK age 30-70) - Dec 9, 2021 10 Dec, 2021
Pfizer knew of 290 kinds of COVID vaccine problems 10 Dec, 2021
COVID vaccines produce blood antibodies, not the needed mucosal antibodies - Dec 7, 2021 10 Dec, 2021
11,321 Breakthru COVID cases in Massachusetts last week (fully vaccinated) - Dec 7, 2021 09 Dec, 2021
COVID, influenza, hepatitis B, measles, etc. vaccine responses vary with Vitamin D and its receptor 08 Dec, 2021
COVID-19 infection risk 2X higher in vaccinated than previously infected (28,000 in Netherlands) – preprint Nov 24, 2021 02 Dec, 2021
Vaccinated were 28 percent of cases, 23 percent of deaths (waning)- CDC Sept 2021 30 Nov, 2021
Most Germans will be vaccinated, cured or dead of COVID in a few months (German Health Minister) - Nov 21, 2021 23 Nov, 2021
Most Germans will be vaccinated, cured or dead of COVID in a few months (German Health Minister) - Nov 21, 2021 23 Nov, 2021
3,900 deaths within 2 weeks of 2nd vaccination in Sweden - Nov 18, 2021 23 Nov, 2021
Pfizer trial vaccinated 22,000: 1 COVID death prevented, but 4 died of heart attacks - Nov 2021 23 Nov, 2021
Elderly vaccinated for COVID were 2X more likely to die of ischemic stroke (2930 vs 1180 deaths)– Nov 2021 22 Nov, 2021
Fully Vaccinated Are COVID 'Superspreaders,' says Inventor of mRNA Technology - Oct 13, 2021 20 Nov, 2021
Vaccine definition by the CDC seems to now include Vitamin D - Sept 2021 17 Nov, 2021
Vaccination immunity is waning - Fauci - Nov 14, 2021 16 Nov, 2021
Shingles perhaps increased with COVID virus or vaccine - Nov 2021 16 Nov, 2021
Booster vaccination for all adults in CA, CO, AR - Nov 2021 16 Nov, 2021
Bill Gates admits COVID-19 vaccines don't stop viral transmission - Nov 5, 2021 14 Nov, 2021
COVID-19 Infection Rate Skyrockets in America’s Most Vaccinated State: Vermont - Nov 14, 2021 14 Nov, 2021
Booster vaccination for all adult in California - Nov 11, 2021 11 Nov, 2021
NIH (where Faucci works) to debate vaccine mandates - Dec 1, 2021 11 Nov, 2021
2X more male teens died than normal in England this summer (perhaps vaccination) - Oct 2021 10 Nov, 2021
Trump counties are 3X more likely die of COVID than Biden counties (vaccination, mask) - Nov 2021 10 Nov, 2021
Vaccine passports expire in 6 months in Israel, but not (yet) in the US - Oct 2021 09 Nov, 2021
Doctors want to prescribe alternative COVID treatments and not give vaccines needlessly - Summit Nov 6, 2021 06 Nov, 2021
COVID spread appears to not be stopped by vaccination, yet US wants to get all vaccinated by Jan – Nov 4, 2021 04 Nov, 2021
Nursing home vaccinated against Influenza, 800 IU of vitamin D daily cut infection rate in half – small RCT Oct 2021 04 Nov, 2021
Vaccination effectiveness dropped from 83 percent to ZERO after 9 months (Sweden, preprint) – Oct 2021 29 Oct, 2021
Severe fatigue and headache in 4 pct of vaccinated, age 16-25 - Oct 2021 27 Oct, 2021
COVID Vaccination trial for kids: 11 red flags - Oct 25, 2021 26 Oct, 2021
COVID natural Immunity is most likely better than vaccination immunity- literature review by Masterjohn - Oct 2021 24 Oct, 2021
TB vaccinations increased vitamin D levels a year later – Jan 2012 20 Oct, 2021
Adverse reactions to 100 Pfizer booster vaccinations: 83 pain, 63 fatigue, 48 headache, etc. - Sept 2021 13 Oct, 2021
Pfizer vaccine half as effective as Moderna after 6 months (fading or Delta) - Mayo preprint Aug 2021 05 Oct, 2021
Long-haul, VAERS, Ivermectin, vaccines, etc. Drs. Seheult, Patrick: Video with table of contents - Sept 17, 2021 21 Sep, 2021
Standard COVID vaccines probably improved effectiveness if higher vitamin D– Sept 2021 15 Sep, 2021
Vaccines protect for: 10 years Tetanus, 3 years Typhoid, 6 month Influenza, unknown COVID – WSJ Sep 10, 2021 13 Sep, 2021
Vaccinated and Unvaccinated are just as infectious after catching COVID-Delta (UK study) - Aug 2021 21 Aug, 2021
Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines might be increased by Vitamin D – Aug 2021 20 Aug, 2021
Vitamin D probably can both prevent Influenza and augment vaccine effectiveness – Aug 2018 18 Aug, 2021
Initial efficacy of vaccines against COVID-Delta - July 20, 2021 11 Aug, 2021
Pfizer Vaccine efficacy drops to 84 pcnt after 6 months (Delta not mentioned) - July 28, 2021 07 Aug, 2021
'A Few Mutations Away': The Threat of a Vaccine-Proof Variant - CDC July 27, 2021 07 Aug, 2021
Vaccines are plan A for COVID-19 Immunity (no plan B ) - Sept 11, 2020 01 Aug, 2021
Obese get less benefit from vaccines: influenza, hepatitis B, rabies and now COVID-19 - March 2021 01 Aug, 2021
A virus can mutate to avoid a vaccine, need more than vaccines to fight a virus – July 31, 2021 01 Aug, 2021
Warning - mass vaccinations typically create mutations that are vaccine resistant - July 29, 2021 31 Jul, 2021
Initial efficacy of 3 vaccines against COVID-19 variants - July 31, 2021 31 Jul, 2021
Vaccine effectiveness may drop to only 16% in 6 months if time between jabs was only 3 weeks – July 2021 30 Jul, 2021
More than 1 hour of daily sun improved influenza vaccine by 35 percent (Vitamin D helps again) – Oct 2019 28 Jul, 2021
J and J vaccination 67 percent efficacy against COVID-Delta (perhaps need Vitamin D) – July 23, 2021 23 Jul, 2021
Vitamin D, C, A, and E, as well as Iron, Se, and Zinc each augment vaccine response – July 2021 20 Jul, 2021
Similar number of US deaths were associated with vaccinations as COVID-19 infections in the previous week– July 12, 2021 19 Jul, 2021
How mass vaccination may lead to increased COVID-Delta 18 Jul, 2021
68 infants died in Italy 2009-2011 soon after vaccination, drop in US SIDS when vaccinations slowed due to COVID-19 – July 2021 08 Jul, 2021
Similar death rates for Vaccination and COVID-19 in Denmark (retracted) – June 2021 03 Jul, 2021
Similar death rate for Vaccination and COVID-19 study and video – June 24, 2021 28 Jun, 2021
Higher rate of serious Vaccination problems than COVID-19 deaths – June 24, 2021 25 Jun, 2021
More than enough evidence on the Yellow Card system to declare the COVID-19 vaccines unsafe for use in humans. - June 9, 2021 10 Jun, 2021
Emergency use of vaccine only if "No adequate, approved, and available alternative" (such as vitamin D)- May 2021 03 Jun, 2021
Problems with vaccine use during a pandemic - Dr. Bossche interview with transcript - April 22, 2021 28 May, 2021
COVID-19 cases increased in 26 countries soon after vaccinations - April, May 2021 27 May, 2021
Half of COVID-19 death rate differences explained by rates of elderly influenza vaccination and low vitamin D – April 2021 26 May, 2021
Country reliant on tourism vaccinated, but now 1 in 1,000 get COVID-19 daily - May 2021 08 May, 2021
Vaccine response improved by Vitamin D (Shingles in this case) – Jan 2021 06 May, 2021
COVID-19 vaccines look good in the short term, but probably not good for the long term 29 Apr, 2021
Vaccine trials excluded pregnancies, but it is OK to be vaccinated while pregnant 29 Apr, 2021
Risk of dying from AstraZeneca vaccine higher than of COVID-19 - Norway April 23, 2021 28 Apr, 2021
Vaccination publications in VitaminDWiki 28 Apr, 2021
Deaths during past decade: Measles Zero, Measles Vaccines 100 - Feb 2015 25 Apr, 2021
COVID vaccines may occasionaly cause functional neurologic disorders - April 2021 16 Apr, 2021
If ANY of these vaccination problems occur, the US will not accomplish herd immunity 15 Apr, 2021
COVID-19 vaccine adverse reactions reported 6X more often in Europe than in the US – March 29, 2021 03 Apr, 2021
Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018 25 Mar, 2021
COVID-19 Vaccines compared: side effects, ingredients, etc. - March 2021 24 Mar, 2021
Vaccines Are Pushing Pathogens to Evolve – May 2018 23 Mar, 2021
COVID-19 vaccine – no compensation if the problem occurs after 1 year (new US law) – Feb 2021 13 Mar, 2021
Reasons why the virus might mutate and become immune to the COVID-19 vaccine – Nov 2020 11 Mar, 2021
Women have more problems with COVID-19 vaccines (perhaps due to lower vitamin D) – March 2021 08 Mar, 2021
Worrisome New Evidence That Vaccines Are Less Effective Against Variants - March 2021 08 Mar, 2021
329 COVID-19 vaccine deaths reported to CDC in a month – Jan 22, 2021 01 Feb, 2021
1170 vaccinations to prevent 1 severe COVID-19 case , vs 1.2 vaccinations to prevent 1 case of Measles 22 Jan, 2021
Herd immunity occurs only via vaccination - W.H.O. Oct 2020 15 Jan, 2021
Take 50,000 IU of Vitamin D weekly before and after COVID-19 vaccination 27 Dec, 2020
Why Vitamin D is better than the Flu Vaccine – Nov 2018 18 Dec, 2020
Vaccinated children had more chronic diseases - Sept 2018 17 Dec, 2020
Fight COVID-19 without drugs or vaccines, Vitamin D is the single most-studied way – Nov 2020 24 Nov, 2020
Many problems with Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine – Nov 9, 2020 09 Nov, 2020
Vaccination increased risk of getting (previous) Coronavirus infection by 1.36 X – Dept. of Defense Oct 2019 23 Sep, 2020
Perhaps the influenza vaccine will increase the risk of COVID-19 (it did by 2X for COVID-2009) - Sept 2020 08 Sep, 2020
Towards a COVID-19 vaccine - France April 14,2020 21 Apr, 2020
Vaccine antibody generation not change with Vitamin D – 21 ng or 44ng – RCT Feb 2019 08 Jan, 2020
Flu vaccinations during pregnancy should NOT be the standard of care until tests show it is OK – Nov 2019 16 Nov, 2019
Appears that the CDC has shut down GreenMed email due to vaccination data – June 2019 20 Jun, 2019
Does a vaccine increase the risk of Autism – March 2019 17 Mar, 2019
Measles outbreak in California in 2015 – 1 in 3 was actually a Vaccine outbreak – March 2019 05 Mar, 2019
Vitamin D 10 x better than Flu Vaccine if you have very low vitamin D – Feb 2017 04 Feb, 2019
Dr. Coimbra interview covering Vitamin D, Magnesium, Folate, Vaccines - Oct 2018 24 Nov, 2018
Flu vaccine effectiveness and side effects 30 Sep, 2018
More US infants die in 1st day than in all other developed countries COMBINED (and US gives vaccine in first day) – May 2013 25 Sep, 2018
Autism 2.75 X more likely in Hib vaccines containing Mercury – May 2018 21 Sep, 2018
Influenza virus might be prevented and treated by Vitamin D, if no vaccination – Aug 2018 16 Aug, 2018
Vitamin D Effective in Preventing Flu if not vaccinated - June 2018 04 Jul, 2018
Autism and ADHD type disorders were 14X more likely in survey of extreme preterm vaccinated infants - April 2017 04 Jul, 2018
2017 Vaccine may prevent only 10 percent of influenza, Vitamin D prevents 70 percent 16 Feb, 2018
10X reactions to flu vaccine when vitamin D deficient 09 May, 2017
TB vaccinations greatly increased vitamin D – Feb 2011 27 Feb, 2017
Vaccinations might be improved with vitamin D booster – March 2015 09 Oct, 2016
Influenza virus vaccine for pregnant woman does not protect a fetus for very long – July 2016 01 Aug, 2016
Influenza virus vaccine for pregnant woman does not protect an infant for very long – July 2016 01 Aug, 2016
CDC: Influenza vaccinations not expected to work well this year (but vitamin D should) – Dec 2014 24 Mar, 2015
Perhaps Vitamin D can augment or replace some vaccines – March 2015 24 Mar, 2015
Vaccine vs vitamin D 23 Feb, 2015
Influenza vaccine meta-analysis found moderate protection – Lancet Oct 2011 16 Oct, 2014
Off topic: CDC deleted a 3X increase in black male autism due to vaccination – whistle blowing Aug 2014 26 Aug, 2014
Vaccine and 1000 IU of vitamin D started concurrently, vitamin D did not help – RCT Jan 2013 18 Jan, 2013

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