Association between blood level of vitamin D and outcome from Covid-19
>30ng/ml 85% had mild disease, 15% had moderate, severe, or critical disease
<30ng/ml 5% had mild disease, 95% had moderate, severe, or critical disease
https://ssrn.com/abstract=3571484 or https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3571484
Critical COVID-19 was 19X more likely if low vitamin D – April 15, 2020. (The authenticity of this study is disputed)
Survival associated with blood level of vitamin D
>30ng.ml 96% survival
<30ng/ml 12% survived
<20ng.ml 1% survived
Severity of disease associated with blood level of vitamin D
>30ng/ml 62% severe disease
<30ng/ml 85% severe disease
Vitamin D + vitamin B12 + Magnesium treatment.
26 Controls: 16 required oxygen therapy. 16 ITU admissions
17 Treated: 3 required oxygen therapy. No ITU admissions
5. Germany, Saarland
Respiratory disease fatalities associated with blood level of vitamin D. Ages 50–75 years.
Vitamin D <12ng/ml = 21% deaths
Vitamin D 12–20ng/ml = 13.7% deaths
Vitamin D >20ng/ml = 9.4% deaths
In this group, the incidence of respiratory deaths (not Covid-19) was twice as high in those with lowest vitamin D.
6. Newcastle upon Tyne
Severity of Covid-19 (need for ICU treatment) and blood levels of vitamin D.
ITU compared to medical ward for Covid-19 treatment
ITU patients had lower blood levels of vitamin D.
Also tended to be younger
7. Spain (Córdoba)
Randomised Controlled Trial, using Calcidiol, 25(OH)D, part-activated vitamin D.
Admissions to hospital with Covid-19 pneumonia
13 (50%) needed intensive care
2 (8%) died
50 treated with vitamin D
1 (2%) needed intensive care
Mortality from Covid-19 as predicted by blood levels of vitamin D.
81% had bood vitamin D <30ng/ml
=> 30ng/ml 5% died
<10ng/ml 50% died
Risk of Covid-19 infection predicted by blood level of vitamin D
Vitamin D deficient = 21.6%
Vitamin D suficient = 12.2%
Risk of Covid-19 infection predicted by blood level of vitamin D.
Vitamin D <30ng/ml = 28.6%
Vitamin D >30ng/ml = 14.2%
Mean vitamin D levels with Covid-19 infection and deaths.
Fatal Covid-19 8ng/ml
Blood level of vitamin D predicting critical Covid-19 and deaths.
Vitamin D <12ng/ml
Hazard Ratio for invasive ventilation = 6.12 in those with lowest vitamin D levels
Hazard Ratio for death =14.73 in those with lowest vitamin D levels.
Blood level of vitamin D predicting Covid-19 infection.
Vitamin D levels known and Covid-19 infection documented
Lowest level of vitamin D 20ng/ml, 12% risk of Covid-19 infection
Highest level 50–60ng/ml, 6% risk
Good blood level of vitamin D reduces risk of Covid-19 infection by 50%
14. Tehran / Boston
Blood level of vitamin D predicting severity of disease and death from Covid-19.
Vitamin D ≥ 30ng/ml 32.8%
Vitamin D < 30ng/ml. 67.2%
16.3% of 235 subjects died
Vitamin D ≥ 30ng/ml 9.7% of deaths
Vitamin D < 30ng/ml 90.3% of deaths
Deaths reduced by 80% in this with good blood levels of vitamin D
15. Birmingham, UK
392 healthcare workers tested for Covid-19 and Vitamin D.
Vitamin D <12ng/ml (30nmol/L) in 61 (15.1%)
Vitamin D <12ng/ml 41 out of 61 (72%) developed Covid-19
Vitamin D =>12ng/ml 170 out of 331(51%) developed Covid-19
Vitamin D <12ng/ml 17 out of 18 (94%) developed Covid-19
Vitamin D =>12ng/ml 12 out of 23 (52%) developed Covid-19
Association between blood vitamin D and severity of Covid-19.
149 Covid-19 patients. Mean vitamin D 15.2ng/ml
Severe/critical disease 102 (68.5%). 66.7% died. Mean vitamin D 10.1 ng/ml.
Moderate disease 47 (31.5%). 2.1% died. Mean vitamin D 26.3% ng/ml
Prediction of positive Covid-19 test based on blood vitamin D levels.
Vitamin D ≧ 20ng/ml: 317 people, 39 (12%) positive
Vitamin D < 20ng/ml: 172 people, 32 (19%) positive
A low level of vitamin D (<20ng/ml, 50nmol/L) predicted an increased (x1.77) risk of becoming Covid-19 positive.
These studies that have appeared suggest not just that vitamin D is very important in the escalation of defensive immunity in response to infection, but also that the blood level of vitamin D is a good surrogate for the measure of immunity.
The studies indicate that a blood level of more than”30ng/ml (75nmol/L) is a level that indicates protection against serious or fatal Covid-19 infection. A target level of 40ng/ml (100nmol/L) would appear to be appropriate, and to achieve this vitamin D in a daily supplement of 4,000 units is effective, perfectly safe, and costs about £12 per year.
There are three dimensions to vitamin D in respect of Covid-19:
- The importance of vitamin D as judged by its blood level and the association of vitamin D deficiency with unfavourable outcome and death.
- The importance of vitamin D as judged by its blood value and its prediction of unfavourable outcome and death with vitamin D deficiency.
- The favourable effect of giving a vitamin D supplement in the prevention of an unfavourable outcome.
In the above list there were:
- 8 association studies,
- 7 prediction studies
- 2 supplement studies (one randomised controlled)
As of Jan 25 had: 34 trials, 4 trial results, 12 meta-analyses and reviews, 46 observations, 25 recommendations, 42 associations, 83 speculations, 38 videos see also COVID-19 and Vitamin D: Governments. Health problems. Hospitals
- Vitamin D helps the immune system fight COVID-19 – video Jan 21, 2021
- COVID-19 2.7 X more likely to be severe if less than 30 ng of vitamin D (China) – Jan 2021
- 2.7 fewer COVID-19 hospital deaths in those having more than 30 ng of vitamin D – Mayo Jan 9, 2021
- Vitamin D Help Us Fight Infections - interview of Dr. Thakkar (transcript) Jan 20, 2021
- COVID-19 onset strongly associated with latitude in Europe (Vitamin D)– Jan 21, 2021
- France: 73 experts and 6 academies recommend vitamin D to prevent COVID-19 Jan 19, 2021
- Elderly COVID-19 patients getting 400,000 IU of vitamin D had better survival (Italy, April)– Jan 14, 2021
- Vitamin D-COVID interview by Dr. Campbell of Davies (member of UK Parliament) - Jan 17, 2021
- Iranians with COVID-19 were 2.3 X more likely to die if low vitamin D – Jan 2021
- Many COVID-19 risks are associated with low vitamin D (7 studies) – Systematic Review Jan 2021
- 40 ng of Vitamin D to fight COVID 15K to 50K weekly or 100K monthly - Spanish Jan 2021
- Poor COVID-19 prognosis was 6 X more likely if low vitamin D – Jan 21, 2021
- Unraveling the roles of vitamin D status and melanin during COVID-19 (Review) Jan 11
- 30 x fewer COVID-19 deaths in those getting 400,000 IU of Vitamin D - Jan 2021
- 2.8 X fewer COVID-19 nursing home deaths if add 10,000 IU Vitamin D daily for a week (small observation)- Jan 2021
- 3.7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 if supplemented with Vitamin D - meta-analysis Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 test positive 4.5 X more likely if had low vitamin D test within 4 years – Jan 6, 2021
- Don’t Let COVID-19 Patients Die With Vitamin D Deficiency - Jan 5, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID 19 Video - Drs. Seheult and Campbell : Lessons Learned and a Look Ahead - Jan 4
- Many drugs increase ACE2 and COVID-19 (176 page review) - Dec 2020
- Italian nursing home COVID-19 – 4X less likely to die if taking Vitamin D– Dec 22, 2020
- Take 50,000 IU of Vitamin D weekly before and after COVID-19 vaccination by VItaminDWiki
- COVID-19 lung infection upsets Vitamin D genes (so more or different form of Vit D is required) - Dec 22, 2020
- COVID-19 Disease and Vitamin D: A Mini-Review – Dec 15, 2020
- French Consensus – 200,000 IU of Vitamin D if get COVID-19 – Dec 22, 2020
- Rational approach to COVID-19: 50k-100k of Vitamin D weekly – Dec 2020
- Shift workers 2X more likely to get COVID-19 (low Vitamin D) - Dec 2020
- COVID-19 plus pneumonia in ICU with low vitamin D equaled Death - Dec 2020
- Excellent on-going analysis of Vitamin D and COVID-19 publications
- 7X less likely to die of COVID-19 if taking Vitamin D loading dose – Dec 11, 2020
- COVID-19 patients with low vitamin D had far fewer natural killer cells – Dec 2020
- COVID-19 Vitamin D: Overview of Evidence by Dr. Seheult (Video and transcript) - Dec 10, 2020
- 75 articles indicate that Vitamin D should fight COVID-19 – Evidence Review Dec 10, 2020
- COVID-19 Vitamin D: Overview by Dr. in Sri Lanka (Video and transcript) - Dec 8, 2020
- Vitamin D recommended to fight COVID-19 by 2 groups – Dec 7, 2020
- Vitamin D helps athletes while reducing their COVID-19 risk - Dec 4, 2020
- 5X more likely to test positive for COVID-19 if low vitamin D in previous 5 years (900,000 people) - Dec 4, 2020
- 5.8 X more likely to die of COVID-19 if low vitamin D - Systematic Review Dec 3, 2020
- Evidence of Vitamin D fighting COVID-19 etc. - take 4,000 IU if less than 20 ng (UK) – Dec 1, 2020
- 3.8 X higher risk of COVID-19 death if low vitamin D – Belgium Nov 25, 2020
- Hyperglycemic 2X more likely to have severe COVID-19 - Nov 2020 Diabetes
- COVID-19 protocol proposed in India includes Vitamin D - Nov 12, 2020
- A Medical School COVID-19 protocol includes Vitamin D for all phases – Marik Nov 2020
- Vitamin D has eliminated ICU COVID-19 in hospital in Dubai since June - Sept 26, 2020
- COVID-19 and Vitamin D: Health Authorities do not understand risk-reward – Nov 2020
- c19study.com/d has excellent synopsis of Vitamin D and COVID studies
- COVID-19 – Putative Roles of Vitamin D – Nov 2020
- Fight COVID-19 without drugs or vaccines, Vitamin D is the single most-studied way – Nov 2020
- Hospital COVID-19 observation: 7X more likely to live if more than 20 ng of vitamin D– Nov 19, 2020
- Higher vitamin D associated with fewer cases and deaths in India Nov 2020
- COVID-19 defeated 3x faster by 420,000 IU Vitamin D nanoemulsion – RCT Nov 12, 2020
- 2X fewer COVID-19 deaths observed if infrequent vitamin D (2X more deaths if daily dose) – ClinicalTrial Oct 20, 2020
- Vitamin D and COVID-19 - observational studies found it helps, never hurts - Campbell Oct 31, 2020
- COVID-19 patients who happened to be taking Vitamin D did much better – Oct 27,2020
- 9X COVID-19 survival in nursing home if had 80,000 IU dose of vitamin D in previous month – Oct 2020
- Virtually no COVID-19 cases in countries having more than 30 ng of Vitamin D - Sept 17, 2020
- Rate of COVID-19 test positive is 40 pcnt lower if high vitamin D (192,000 people) - Holick Sept 2020