Vitamin D: evolutionary, physiological and health perspectives.
Curr Drug Targets. 2011 Jan 1;12(1):4-18.
Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. email@example.com.
Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has been important not only for the evolution of a healthy calcified vertebrate skeleton but it also evolved into a hormone that has a wide diversity of biologic effects. During exposure to sunlight the ultraviolet B radiation converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D(3) which in turn rapidly isomerizes to vitamin D(3).
Once formed, vitamin D(3) is metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and in the kidneys to its active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) interacts with its vitamin D receptor in calcium regulating tissues to regulate calcium metabolism and bone health.
It is now recognized that most cells in the body have a vitamin D receptor and they also have the capability of producing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) which in turn is capable of regulating a wide variety of genes that have important functions in regulating cell growth, modulating immune function and cardiovascular health.
Epidemiologic evidence and prospective studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type II diabetes and infectious diseases.
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency have been defined as a 25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/ml and 21-29 ng/ml respectively.
For every 100 IU of vitamin D ingested the blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the measure vitamin D status, increases by 1 ng/ml.
It is estimated that children need at least 400-1000 IU of vitamin D a day while teenagers and adults need at least 2000 IU of vitamin D a day to satisfy their body's vitamin D requirement.
It is estimated that 1 billion people worldwide are vitamin D deficient or insufficient.
Correcting and preventing this deficiency could have an enormous impact on reducing health costs worldwide. PMID: 20795941
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Abstracts from this Special Issue of Current Drug Targets at VitaminDWiki
- Vitamin D: evolutionary, physiological and health perspectives Holick
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- Vitamin d biology in heart failure: molecular mechanisms and systematic review
- Vitamin d deficiency: universal risk factor for multifactorial diseases?
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