Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;27(4):255-267. English.
Published online 2012 December 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2012.27.4.255
Copyright © 2012 Korean Endocrine Society
Michael F. Holick
Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Nutrition and Diabetes, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
Corresponding author: Michael F. Holick. Department of Medicine, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Boston University Medical Center, 85 East Newton Street, M-1013, Boston, MA 02118, USA. Tel: +1-617-638-4546, Fax: +1-617-638-8882, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin D is a sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. Because foods contain so little vitamin D most humans have always depended on sun exposure for their vitamin D requirement. Vitamin D deficiency has been defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration < 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L); vitamin D insufficiency as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 21-29 ng/mL and vitamin D sufficiency as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 30-100 ng/mL whereas toxicity is usually not seen until blood levels are above 150 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem that increases risk for metabolic bone diseases in children and adults as well as many chronic illnesses including autoimmune diseases, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, and cancer. The major causes of vitamin D deficiency are lack of adequate sensible exposure to sunlight, inadequate dietary intake and obesity.
color version is from his 2013 publication
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
- Vitamin D, Sunlight and Cancer Connection – Holick Jan 2013
- Evidence for vitamin D – Holick June 2012 Dermato-Endocrinology
- Vitamin D books - 2 volume 2nd edition edited by Holick - Dec 2012
- VITAMIN D: A D-LIGHTFUL SOLUTION FOR GOOD HEALTH – Holick 2012
- Vitamin D presentation by Dr. Holick Spring 2012 Video
- Vitamin D review – Holick Jan 2013
short URL = http://is.gd/holick1212