Periodontal disease 1.5 times more likely if low vitamin D – Sept 2016

Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with periodontal disease.

Clin Oral Investig. 2016 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Laky M1, Bertl K2,3, Haririan H4, Andrukhov O4, Seemann R5, Volf I6, Assinger A6, Gruber R7, Moritz A4,8, Rausch-Fan X4.

Vitamin D plays an essential role in bone metabolism as well as in immunity. Hence, it might affect the development and extent of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in periodontal disease.
Twenty-nine patients with severe periodontal disease and 29 healthy volunteers were recruited in this case-control-study. Serum 25(OH)D levels, Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Bleeding on Probing (BOP), Body Mass Index (BMI), and current smoking status and smoking history (packyears) were assessed in all participants. Serum 25(OH)D levels were compared between controls and cases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for periodontal disease in 25(OH)D deficient probands.
Patients with periodontal disease presented a significantly higher proportion of deficient 25(OH)D levels (i.e., <50 nmol/l) compared to healthy controls (48 vs. 14 % respectively). The adjusted OR for periodontal disease with vitamin D deficiency was 1.5 (95 % CI, 1.13-1.98).
No correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and CAL, PPD, and BOP in the group with periodontal disease was found.
In this case-control-study 25(OH)D deficiency is significantly associated with periodontal disease.
The assessment of vitamin D levels in patients presenting with periodontal disease seems advisable, as vitamin D deficiency might be involved in the onset and progression of periodontal disease.

PMID: 27686455 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-016-1965-2

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