Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer Risk in a Large Nested Case–Control Study
Demetrius Albanes, Alison M. Mondul, Kai Yu, Dominick Parisi, Ronald L. Horst, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie J. Weinstein
Authors' Affiliations: 1Nutritional Epidemiology Branch and 2 Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda; 3 Information Management Services, Silver Spring, Maryland; 4 Heartland Assays Inc., Ames, Iowa; and 5 Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 20, No. 9. (1 September 2011), pp. 1850-1860. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0403
Background: Vitamin D compounds inhibit prostate tumorigenesis experimentally, but epidemiologic data are inconsistent with respect to prostate cancer risk, with some studies suggesting nonsignificant positive associations.
Methods: The 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]–prostate cancer relation was examined in a nested case–control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of 50- to 69-year-old Finnish men. We matched 1,000 controls to 1,000 cases diagnosed during up to 20 years of follow-up on the basis of age (±1 year) and fasting blood collection date (±30 days). Conditional multivariate logistic regression models estimated ORs and 95% CIs. All statistical significance testing was 2-sided.
Results: Cases had nonsignificantly 3% higher serum 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.19). ORs (95% CIs) for increasing season-specific quintiles of 25(OH)D concentrations were 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (0.95–1.74), 1.34 (1.00–1.80), 1.26 (0.93–1.72), and 1.56 (1.15–2.12), with Ptrend = 0.01. Analyses based on prespecified clinical categories and season-adjusted values yielded similar results.
These findings seemed stronger for
- aggressive disease [OR (95% CI) for fifth quintile of serum 25(OH)D [[1.70 (1.05–2.76), Ptrend = 0.02],
- among men with greater physical activity [1.85 (1.26–2.72), Ptrend = 0.002],
- higher concentrations of serum total cholesterol [2.09 (1.36–3.21), Ptrend = 0.003] or
- (higher concentrations of) ?-tocopherol [2.00 (1.30–3.07), Ptrend = 0.01] and
- higher intakes of total calcium [1.82 (1.20–2.76), Ptrend = 0.01] or
- (higher intakes of) vitamin D [1.69 (1.04–2.75), Ptrend = 0.08], or
- among those who had received the trial ?-tocopherol supplements [1.74 (1.15–2.64), Ptrend = 0.006].
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that men with higher vitamin D blood levels are at increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
Impact: Greater caution is warranted with respect to recommendations for high-dose vitamin D supplementation and higher population target blood levels.
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Suspect the vitamin D levels were high due to the Fins taking Cod Liver oil, which has large amounts of Vitamin A which blocks the Vitamin D
See also VitaminDWiki
- 16 percent less Prostate Cancer sometimes for each 10ng vitamin D increase - Jan 2011
- Prostate Cancer U shaped curve with vitamin D - Lappe May 2011 - which has the following graph