Clinical trial of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on psychological symptoms and metabolic profiles in maintenance methadone treatment patients
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. online 19 June 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.06.016
After 12 weeks of 50,000 IU every two weeks
|Vitamin D||+ 8||− 0.4||ng/mL|
|Improved Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index||− 1.5||− 0.2||-|
|Beck Depression Inventory||− 4.8||− 1.5||-|
|Decreased fasting plasma glucose||− 7.5||+ 0.3||mg/dL|
|Decreased serum insulin levels||- 3.6||− 0.9||μIU/mL|
|Homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance||− 1.0||− 0.2||-|
|Serum triglycerides||− 9.6||+ 15.6||mg/dL|
|Decreased in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein||− 2.2||+ 2.0||-|
|Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity||+ 26||− 86||mmol/L|
|Increased glutathione levels||292||49||μmol/L|
Suspect that many of these benefits would be true for those not on methadone treatment
Amir Ghaderi a, Hamid Reza Banafshe a, b, c, Maryam Motmaen d, Morad Rasouli-Azad e, f, Fereshteh Bahmani g, Zatollah Asemi g firstname.lastname@example.org
a Department of Addiction studies, School of Medical, kashan University of Medical Sciences, kashan, Iran
b Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
c Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
d Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran
e Department of clinical psychology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran
f Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
g Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R., Iran
• This study has evaluated the effects of vitamin D intake in MMT patients.
• Vitamin D supplementation in MMT patients improved psychological symptoms.
• Vitamin D supplementation in MMT patients improved metabolic status.
Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with some complications including nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and periodontal disease in maintenance methadone treatment (MMT) patients. This study was designed to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychological symptoms and metabolic profiles in MMT patients.
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out among 68 MMT patients. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either 50,000 IU vitamin D supplements (n = 34) or placebo (n = 34) every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and post-intervention to evaluate relevant variables.
After the 12-week intervention, serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (+ 8.1 ± 4.9 vs. − 0.4 ± 3.0, P < 0.001). In addition, vitamin D supplementation significantly improved Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (− 1.5 ± 2.2 vs. − 0.2 ± 2.3, P = 0.02) and Beck Depression Inventory (− 4.8 ± 7.3 vs. − 1.5 ± 6.1, P = 0.04) compared with the placebo. Patients who received vitamin D supplements had significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (− 7.5 ± 10.6 vs. + 0.3 ± 10.7 mg/dL, P = 0.004), serum insulin levels (− 3.6 ± 5.3 vs. − 0.9 ± 3.5 μIU/mL, P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (− 1.0 ± 1.3 vs. − 0.2 ± 0.7, P = 0.003), serum triglycerides (− 9.6 ± 30.8 vs. + 15.6 ± 30.2 mg/dL, P = 0.001), total- (− 8.7 ± 20.9 vs. + 11.0 ± 27.4 mg/dL, P = 0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (− 11.1 ± 17.9 vs. + 5.9 ± 27.5 mg/dL, P = 0.004) compared with the placebo. Additionally, vitamin D intake resulted in a significant decrease in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (− 2.2 ± 4.2 vs. + 2.0 ± 3.7 mg/L, P < 0.001), and significant increases plasma total antioxidant capacity (+ 26.2 ± 99.8 vs. − 86.3 ± 127.5 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and glutathione levels (+ 292.3 ± 172.4 vs. + 48.9 ± 208.9 μmol/L, P < 0.001) compared with the placebo. There was no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum HDL-cholesterol, and other markers of insulin metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.
Totally, taking 50,000 IU vitamin D supplement every 2 weeks for 12 weeks in MMT patients had beneficial effects on psychological symptoms and few metabolic profiles.