Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM): Spatial-temporal Patterns of Incidence, Mortality and Attributable Risk Factors from 1990 to 2019 among 21 World Regions
Mehak Nanda, Rajesh Sharma, Sumaira Mubarik, Aashima Aashima & Kai Zhang
Type-2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. This study examines temporal patterns of the global, regional, and national burden of T2DM in the last three decades.
Data and methods
The estimates of age, sex and location-wise incident cases, deaths, prevalent cases, and disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) and risk factors for 21 regions and 204 countries are retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study from 1990 to 2019. Socio-demographic index (SDI) is used as the indicator of the development status of countries, and quadratic regression is employed to examine the relationship between country-level age-standardized rates and SDI.
Globally, incident cases of T2DM more than doubled from 8.4 million [95% uncertainty interval, 7.8–9.1 million] in 1990 to 21.7 million [20.0–23.5 million] in 2019, and deaths more than doubled from 606,407 [573,069–637,508] to 1.5 million[1.4–1.6 million] between 1990 and 2019.
Global T2DM prevalence increased from
- 148.4 million [135.5–162.6 million] in 1990 to
- 437.9 million[402.0–477.0 million] in 2019.
In 2019, global age-standardized prevalence rate stood at 5282.8/100,000 [4853.6–5752.1], varying from 2174.5/100,000 [1924.3–2470.5] in Mongolia to 19876.8/100,000 [18211.1–21795.3] in American Samoa. SDI exhibited inverted-U shaped relationship with country-level age-standardised rates.
- high body-mass-index (51.9%),
- ambient particulate matter pollution (13.6%),
- smoking (9.9%) and
- secondhand smoke (8.7%)
were the major contributing risk factors towards T2DM DALYs in 2019.
With ubiquitously rising prevalent cases globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries and regions, T2DM requires immediate attention and targeted policy response worldwide centered on lifestyle interventions (e.g., physical activity, smoking, diet, and obesity), air pollution control and cost-effective timely treatment.
VitaminDwiki - Overview Diabetes and vitamin D contains
- Diabetes is 5X more frequent far from the equator
- Children getting 2,000 IU of vitamin D are 8X less likely to get Type 1 diabetes
- Obese people get less sun / Vitamin D - and also vitamin D gets lost in fat
- Sedentary people get less sun / Vitamin D
- Worldwide Diabetes increase has been concurrent with vitamin D decrease and air conditioning
- Elderly get 4X less vitamin D from the same amount of sun
Elderly also spend less time outdoors and have more clothes on
- All items in category Diabetes and Vitamin D
517 items: both Type 1 and Type 2
Vitamin D appears to both prevent and treat diabetes
- Appears that >2,000 IU will Prevent
- Appears that >4,000 IU will Treat , but not cure
- Appears that Calcium and Magnesium are needed for both Prevention and Treatment
- which are just some of the vitamin D cofactors
Number of articles in both categories of Diabetes and:
'This list is automatically updated''
- Dark Skin
24 ; Intervention 55 ; Meta-analysis 36 ; Obesity 32 ; Pregnancy 42 ; T1 (child) 38 ; Omega-3 11 ; Vitamin D Receptor 22 ; Genetics 12 ; Magnesium 27 Click here to see details
Some Diabetes studies
- Glycemic control of type 2 diabetes – only Vitamin D had high quality studies – meta-analysis Sept 2022
- Diabetic inflammation synergistically decreased by Vitamin D and exercise – RCT June 2022
- Incidence of Type-2 Diabetes increased 3X in 30 years (by the way, Vitamin D helps) – July 2022
- Vitamin d treats Type II Diabetes in many ways (14 article review) - Sept 2021
- Diabetes 30 percent more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis of 47 studies – July 2021
- Diabetes helped somewhat by weekly 50,000 IU of vitamin D (5 ways to improve) – RCT Aug 2021
- Diabetes prevented by 50,000 IU vitamin D monthly (Iran) – Jan 2022
- Most Diabetics getting 40,000 IU of vitamin D weekly did not get to 30 ng (needed gut-friendly form) - RCT June 2020
50 ng of Vitamin D fights Diabetes
- Saudi study defines normal Vitamin D level to be 50 to 70 ng (diabetes, etc.) - June 2020
- Diabetes 5X less likely if more than 50 ng of Vitamin D – April 2018
- T1 Diabetes 3X lower risk if high vitamin D (over 40 ng) – Meta-analysis Nov 2020
- Type 1 Diabetes is prevented and treated by Vitamin D – review of 16 studies – Sept 2019
- Type 1 Diabetes prevention with Vitamin D and Omega-3 – Symposium April 2019
- Prediabetes reduced by weekly 60,000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT Jan 2021
- Prediabetes 1.5 X more likely to go away if take Vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2020
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Magnesium - many studies
- Step back to 1994. Suppose an epidemic struck the United States, causing blindness, kidney failure, and leg amputations in steadily increasing numbers.
Suppose that in less than a decade's time, the epidemic had victimized one out of every eight people
That epidemic is real, and its name is diabetes, now the nation's sixth leading cause of death.
Chart from the web (2018?)