Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring: a population-based nationwide study in Sweden
Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Oct; 21(10): 1441–1448.
Published online 2015 Dec 8. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.183; PMCID: PMC5030459
K Kosidou,1,2 C Dalman,1,2 L Widman,1,2 S Arver,3 B K Lee,4,5 C Magnusson,1,2 and R M Gardner2,*
- Fertility problem (PCOS) reduced by vitamin D: many studies
- Women with PCOS 4 X more likely to develop T2 Diabetes (no surprise, both associated with low vitamin D) - Aug 2017
- Overview Autism and vitamin D
- Autism rate in siblings reduced 4X by vitamin D: 5,000 IU during pregnancy, 1,000 IU to infants – Feb 2016
- Autism is associated with low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Most Autism Risk factors are associated with low vitamin D - March 2014
- Autism with intellectual disability 2.5 times more likely if low vitamin D during pregnancy – April 2016
- Autistic child 3X more likely if mother was obese and diabetic (both associated with low vitamin D) - Feb 2015
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 168 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Dec 2021
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- OBSERVATION: Low Vitamin D while pregnancy ==> more obese child and adult
- OBSERVATION: Many mammals had evolved to add fat and vitamin D in the autumn
- and lose both in the Spring - unfortunately humans have forgotten to lose the fat in the Spring
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
Although many studies indicate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms hampers the development of effective ways of detecting and preventing the disorder. Recent studies support the hypothesis that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to the development of ASD. This would suggest that maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with excess androgens, would increase the risk of ASD in the offspring. We conducted a matched case–control study nested within the total population of Sweden (children aged 4–17 who were born in Sweden from 1984 to 2007). The sample consisted of 23,748 ASD cases and 208,796 controls, matched by birth month and year, sex and region of birth. PCOS and ASD were defined from ICD codes through linkage to health-care registers. Maternal PCOS increased the odds of ASD in the offspring by 59%, after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.88).
The odds of offspring ASD were further increased among mothers with both PCOS and obesity, a condition common to PCOS that is related to more severe hyperandrogenemia (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.46–3.10). Risk estimates did not differ between sexes. In conclusion, children of women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing ASD. This finding awaits confirmation, and exploration of potentially underlying mechanisms, including the role of sex steroids in the etiology of ASD.