Adrenal, Long-COVID and Vitamin D - several studies

Is there a role for the adrenal glands in long COVID? - May 2022

Nature Reviews Endocrinology volume 18, pages 451–452 (2022)
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Felix Beuschlein & Stefan R. Bornstein

The symptoms of long COVID and chronic adrenal insufficiency have striking similarities. Therefore, we aim to raise awareness of assessing adrenal function in patients with long COVID.

After the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, roughly 20% of patients report one or more complications, which are particularly apparent during mental or physical stress. These complications include extreme chronic fatigue, shortness of breath, sleep abnormalities, headache, brain fog, joint pains, nausea, cough and abdominal pain. When symptoms persist for more than four weeks after initial infection and cannot be attributed to other known diseases, they are described as long COVID 1.
When comparing the clinical presentation of long COVID and chronic adrenal insufficiency, overlap between the conditions can be seen, suggesting that long COVID might be related to some form of adrenal dysfunction 2. Here we discuss the role of the adrenal glands in long COVID.
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Vitamin D and adrenal gland: Myth or reality? A systematic review - Oct 2022

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) . 2022 Oct 13;13:1001065. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1001065
Antonella Al Refaie 1 , Leonardo Baldassini 1 , Michela De Vita 1 , Stefano Gonnelli 1 , Carla Caffarelli 1

In recent years, vitamin D has become the protagonist in many studies. From cardiology to oncology the spotlight was on this vitamin. While in the past it was considered for its important role in phospho-calcium metabolism and skeletal disorders; today by studying it better, thousands of scenarios and facets have opened up on this vitamin which is actually a hormone in all respects. There are authoritative studies that demonstrate its activity in vitro and in vivo on: carcinogenesis, inflammation, autoimmunity and endocrinopathies. Its role has been studied in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in Hashimoto or Graves' thyroiditis and even in adrenal gland diseases.
In fact, there are several studies that demonstrate the possible correlations between vitamin D and:

  • Addison's disease,
  • Cushing disease,
  • hyperaldosteronism or adrenocortical tumors.

Moreover, this fascinating hormone and adrenal gland even seem to be deeply connected by common genetic pathways. This review aimed to analyze the works that have tried to study the possible influence of vitamin D on adrenal diseases. In this review we analyze the works that have tried to study the possible influence of vita-min D on adrenal disease.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

See also VitaminDWiki

See also web

  • Focus on Vitamin D and the Adrenal Gland - 2015 DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1396893
  • Vitamin D status in patients with adrenal tumors and previous COVID-19 infection - 2022 DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.81.EP637
  • Possible Adrenal Involvement in Long COVID Syndrome - Oct 2021, doi: 10.3390/medicina57101087 FREE PDF

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