Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Vitamin D Supplementation on Overall Mortality
Yayuan Zheng , Jianhong Zhu, Manru Zhou, Liao Cui, Weimin Yao, Yuyu Liu
Introduction: It has been suggested that vitamin D is effective to prevent mortality. However, there is no consistent conclusion that the effects of vitamin D supplementation on all-cause mortality are associated with duration of treatment. We conducted a meta-analysis regarding this issue in an effort to provide a more robust answer.
Methods: A comprehensive search in a number of databases, including MEDLINE, Embase and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, was conducted for collecting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on vitamin D supplementation preventing mortality. Two investigators independently screened the literature according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria and the relative data were extracted. Data analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0 software.
Results: Data from forty-two RCT s were included. Vitamin D therapy significantly decreased all-cause mortality with a duration of follow-up longer than 3 years with a RR (95% CI) of 0.94 (0.90–0.98). No benefit was seen in a shorter follow-up periods with a RR (95% CI) of 1.04 (0.97–1.12). Results remain robust after sensitivity analysis.
The following subgroups of long-term follow-up had significantly fewer deaths:
- female only,
- participants with a mean age younger than 80,
- daily dose of 800 IU or less,
- participants with vitamin D insufficiency (baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 50 nmol/L) and
- cholecalciferol therapy.
In addition, the combination of vitamin D and calcium significantly reduced mortality and vitamin D alone also had a trend to decrease mortality in a longer time follow up.
Conclusions: The data suggest that supplementation of vitamin D is effective in preventing overall mortality in a long-term treatment, whereas it is not significantly effective in a treatment duration shorter than 3 years. Future studies are needed to identify the efficacy of vitamin D on specific mortality, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in a long-term treatment duration.
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See also VitaminDWiki
- All items in category Mortality and Vitamin D
- Why do gardeners live longer (vitamin D, etc.)
- Even if a J curve exists, it is 50X better to give vitamin D than not give it – May 2013
- Chance of dying increases by 25 percent in seniors if low vitamin D – Meta-analysis July 2013
- Low levels of vitamin D associated with all cause mortality – Oct 2012
- Vitamin D with Calcium reduces mortality by 7 percent – meta-analysis May 2012 very similar to the study on this page
- Cochrane – 800 IU vitamin D decreased mortality by 6 percent – July 2011 very similar to the study on this page
- Even small amounts of Vitamin D prevent mortality in adults – Cochrane Review Jan 2014
- 40 ng Vitamin D perhaps optimal for reduced mortality – Meta-analysis Jan 2012 40 ng is much higher than the levels reached in the study on this page
- Fewer white spots in MRI brain scans if had more vitamin D – Jan 2014 White spots on brain scan increase mortality risk by 2.0
- Dr. Grant on vitamin D and mortality in VitaminDWiki
- Mortality and vitamin D – great chart
See also web
- Vitamin D supplementation reduces mortality if trial is long enough, says new review Vitamin D Council review of the study on this page
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