Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal mineral homeostasis and anthropometry of the newborn and infant.
Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan 3:1-7.
Kalra P, Das V, Agarwal A, Kumar M, Ramesh V, Bhatia E, Gupta S, Singh S, Saxena P, Bhatia V.
Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226 014, India.
Hypovitaminosis D is common in India. In the present prospective partially randomised study of vitamin D (D3) supplementation during pregnancy, subjects were randomised in the second trimester to receive either one oral dose of 1500 ?g vitamin D3 (group 1, n 48) or two doses of 3000 ?g vitamin D3 each in the second and third trimesters (group 2, n 49). Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at term, cord blood (CB) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), neonatal serum Ca and anthropometry were measured in these subjects and in forty-three non-supplemented mother-infant pairs (usual care).
Median maternal 25(OH)D at term was higher in group 2 (58·7, interquartile range (IQR) 38·4-89·4 nmol/l) v. group 1 (26·2, IQR 17·7-57·7 nmol/l) and usual-care group (39·2, IQR 21·2-73·4 nmol/l) (P = 0·000). CB ALP was increased (>8.02 ?kat/l or >480 IU/l) in 66·7 % of the usual-care group v. 41·9 % of group 1 and 38·9 % of group 2 (P = 0·03). Neonatal Ca and CB 25(OH)D did not differ significantly in the three groups.
Birth weight, length and head circumference were greater
and the anterior fontanelle was smaller in groups 1 and 2 (3·08 and 3·03 kg, 50·3 and 50·1 cm, 34·5 and 34·4 cm, 2·6 and 2·5 cm, respectively) v. usual care (2·77 kg, 49·4, 33·6, 3·3 cm; P = 0·000 for length, head circumference and fontanelle and P = 0·003 for weight).
These differences were still evident at 9 months.
We conclude that both 1500 ?g and two doses of 3000 ?g vitamin D3 had a beneficial effect on infant anthropometry, the larger dose also improving CB ALP and maternal 25(OH)D.
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Group 1: 60,000 IU of vitamin D in 2nd Maternal at birth = 10.5 ng (very low)
Group 2: 120,000 IU of vitamin D in 2nd and 3rd: Maternal at birth = 23.5 ng (fairly low)
Comment by VitaminDwiki
120,000 IU averaged over 90 days = 1300 IU daily = not much
Others have reported that >6,000 IU is needed daily during pregnancy
Also, there could be a problem with having 3 months between supplements
A 50,000 IU capsule of vitamin D taken weekly with co-factors appears to be appropriate
See also VitaminDWiki
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Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summaryProblem
Reduces Evidence 0. Chance of not conceiving 3.4 times Observe 1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe 2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 times RCT 3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT 4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe 5. Premature birth 2 times RCT 6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 times Observe Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 times RCT - Omega-3 7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT 8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis 9. Infant height, weight, head size
within normal limits
RCT 10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT 11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention 12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 times Observe 13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 times RCT 14. Good motor skills @ age 3 1.4 times Observe 15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT 16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT
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