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Vitamin B12

Started this page March 2018
Had been aware of B12 for years
My wife (age 74) had gotten essential tremor in her hand
We suspected B12 or Magnesium deficiency
Surfing the web I found that

  • B12 deficiency increases with age
  • B12 appears to have no toxic upper limit
  • Some people get frequent B12 injections to restore levels
  • Only a small portion of B12 taken orally gets into the bloodstream
    Sublingual B12 may not have that problem
  • Half life of B12 in the blood appear to be of the order of hours
  • B12 is stored in the liver – half life of > 2 years
  • B12 can be supplemented via pills, sublingual, transdermal patch, injection, and spray (best?)

Take B12 sublingually (form we had at home) every few hours to rapidly restore B12 levels
Her Essential Tremor was eliminated in 1 day

19 items in Vitamin B12 category

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Here are all of the Vitamin B12 articles

Vitamin B12 on the web

Misconceptions about a B12 deficiency 2017?

Summary points
1. Serum B12 is a conclusive test
2. A B12 deficiency always causes anemia
3. A B12 deficiency is rare and only occurs in older people
4. There is only one cause for a B12 deficiency, auto-immune pernicious anemia.
5. Serum B12 can be used to monitor treatment:
6. B12 can be toxic in high doses

Older Adults May Need B12 Dose More Than 200 Times the RDA to Normalize Mild Vitamin Deficiency Medscape 2005

  • Randomized Controlled trial using 2.5, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 µg
  • “To achieve 80% to 90% of the estimated maximum reduction in the plasma methylmalonic acid concentration, daily doses of 647 to 1,032 µg of cyanocobalamin were required”



B12 Info a huge resource

Anyone, at any age, can become B12 deficient. However, certain people are at an elevated risk

  • that are vegetarians, vegans and people on macrobiotic diets
  • aged fifty and over
  • who've undergone any gastric and/or intestinal surgery, including bariatric surgery for weight loss purposes (gastric bypass)
  • who regularly use proton-pump inhibitors, H2 blockers, antacids, Metformin and related diabetes drugs, or other medication which can interfere with B12 absorption
  • Nitrous oxide administration or abuse
  • with a history of eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia)
  • with a history of alcoholism
  • with a family history of pernicious anaemia
  • diagnosed with anaemia (including iron deficiency anaemia, sickle cell anaemia, and thalassemia)
  • with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, coeliac disease, or any other disease that causes malabsorption of nutrients
  • with autoimmune disorders (especially thyroid disorders such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease), type 1 diabetes, vitiligo, lupus, Addison's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, acquired agammaglobulinemia, or a family history of these disorders
  • with neurologic or motor symptoms
  • with Downs syndrome
  • with Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • with psychiatric disorders, including depression, bipolar etc
  • with elevated MCV (mean corpuscular volume)
  • with occlusive vascular disorders (MI, CVA, DVT, PE)
  • Orthostatic hypotension / Postural hypotension
  • Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs, or 'mini stroke')
  • Cerebral vascular accident (CVA or 'stroke')
  • Myocardial infarction ('heart attack')
  • DVT - Deep vein thrombosis (blood clot to the leg or arm)
  • with Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • who've undergone neck or back surgery
  • Who've undergone Chemo or radiation therapy

Women . . .

  • with a history or infertility or multiple miscarriages
  • with post natal depression
  • Nitrous oxide administration (laughing gas)

Infants . . .

  • born to and/or breast-fed by women who are symptomatic or are at risk for B12 deficiency
  • Infants and children with developmental delay

B12 Deficiency Wikipedia

B12 infographics from the web


Low B12 in 55% of Diabetics getting Metformin

B12 oral seems as good as an injection, and much lower cost - Cochraine March 2018

__Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency

+ 10.1002/14651858.CD004655.pub3

Vitamin B12. - March 2018

Adv Food Nutr Res. 2018;83:215-279. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2017.11.005. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
Smith AD1, Warren MJ2, Refsum H3.

The biosynthesis of B12, involving up to 30 different enzyme-mediated steps, only occurs in bacteria. Thus, most eukaryotes require an external source of B12, and yet the vitamin appears to have only two functions in eukaryotes: as a cofactor for the enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonylCoA mutase. These two functions are crucial for normal health in humans, and in particular, the formation of methionine is essential for providing methyl groups for over 100 methylation processes. Interference with the methionine synthase reaction not only depletes the body of methyl groups but also leads to the accumulation of homocysteine, a risk factor for many diseases. The syndrome pernicious anemia, characterized by lack of intrinsic factor, leads to a severe, sometimes fatal form of B12 deficiency.
However, there is no sharp cutoff for B12 deficiency; rather, there is a continuous inverse relationship between serum B12 and a variety of undesirable outcomes, including

  • neural tube defects,
  • stroke, and
  • dementia.

The brain is particularly vulnerable; in children, inadequate B12 stunts brain and intellectual development.
Suboptimal B12 status (serum B12<300pmol/L) is very common, occurring in 30%-60% of the population, in particular in pregnant women and in less-developed countries. Thus, many tens of millions of people in the world may suffer harm from having a poor B12 status. Public health steps are urgently needed to correct this inadequacy.

KEYWORDS: Brain; Children; Cobalamin; Cognition; Elderly; Homocysteine; Memory; Methylmalonic acid; Pregnancy

PMID: 29477223 DOI: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2017.11.005

3X as many headaches in children with low B12 - March 2018

The association between serum vitamin B12 deficiency and tension-type headache in Turkish children.
24% vs 8% were < 200 pg/ml

Singers believe B12 reduces voice tremors - Jan 2018

The Singer's and the Clinician's Perspective on Vitamin B12 Treatment for Vocal Benefits
but laryngologists have not seen any studies

Nineteen B12 genes - Feb 2018

An update on vitamin B12-related gene polymorphisms and B12 status

5 co-factors or regulators for the transport of vitamin B12
1 membrane transporters
3 involved in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions
1involved in cell cycle regulation
3mitochondrial proteins
4 unknown function

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

B12 deficiency - from Pintrest


Vitamin B12 injections increase acne

  • Common Vitamin Has Been Linked to a Higher Risk of Acne
    " research from the past six decades that's linked it to higher instances of the condition"
    "So it looks like by intaking extra vitamin B12 (injection), we could be prompting the bacteria in our skin to slow down on their production of it, which leads to an imbalance that could heighten our risk of developing acne"
    http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/7/293/293ra103|free PDF of the small 2015 study]

Why Most People Need Vitamin B12 Supplementation Mercola April 2018, 50 minute video

  • 40 % have marginal vitamin B12, 9 % are deficient
  • "Animal foods have become a questionable source of B12 thanks to modern farming practices ,,,"
  • "B12 Deficiency Mimics Many Serious Neurological Disorders and Diseases"
    such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and autism
  • "Low B12 Implicated in Migraines"
  • especially for "Adults over 50, because as you grow older, your ability to produce intrinsic factor decreases."
  • also "People who have taken antibiotics, as these drugs have been shown to induce vitamin B12 deficiency.26"
  • Methylcobalamin is more absorbable than the cyanocobalamin form of B12

Adding B12 to the soil of Cress greatly increases B12 levels in the plant - May 2018

Nutragredients School project

FDA has lowered the Daily Value for B-12 to just 2.5 mcg for adults, but this won't be reflected on most supplement labels until 2018 or 2019.

Tested German pregnancies for 27 deficiencies, B-12 deficiency was found most frequently - June 2018

__High incidence of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency detected by newborn screening: first results from a study for the evaluation of 26 additional target disorders for the German newborn screening panel.
DOI: 10.1007/s12519-018-0159-1

B12 notes - Bill Sardi July 2018


80 % of those withn eurological abnormalities were B12 deficient - June 2018

Vitamin B12 deficiency neuropathy: A clinical and electrophysiological study
Neurophysiologie Clinique. Volume 48, Issue 3, June 2018, Page 130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2018.05.00

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a metabolic disorder with many causes. The neurological features of vitamin B12 deficiency are heterogeneous [2]. Peripheral neuropathy often described [3], but its frequency and its type is controversial [1[]. The present study was conducted to describe electro-clinical presentations of peripheral neuropathy in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency.

A Retrospective review of 32 subjects with neurological abnormalities due to vitamin B12 deficiency, were subjected to a detailed motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of median, ulnar, external popliteal sciatic, internal popliteal sciatic and sural nerves. Patients that have another reason for neuropathy or another disease that can effect nerve conduction studies were excluded.

The median age of the patients was 51 (± 16.57) years old, (range 18–84 years old), sex ratio (M/F) was 1.66 (20/12).
Clinical features of neuropathy:

  • paraesthesia,
  • hyporeflexia
  • ataxia and limb weakness

were present in 20 (62.5%) patients.
Electromyography showed abnormal nerve conduction in

  • 25 (78.12%) patients and it was normal in 7 (21.88%) patients.

On nerve conduction study: 16 (50%) had axonal impairment, 3 (9.3%) had demyelinating neuropathy and 6 (18.75%) had mixed features. Eleven patients (34.37%) presented a pure sensory impairment and 14 (43.75%) presented mixed pattern sensory and motor impairment.
All cases underwent treatment with intramuscular hydroxocobalamin treatment (daily injection of 1000 μg cyanocobalamin for 4 weeks, followed by injections of 1000 μg each month) with marked clinical and haematological improvement.

Conclusion: We conclude that nearly 80% patients with neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency had evidence of peripheral neuropathy which is mainly axonal with some demyelinating features.
Sensory and motor nerve conduction were affected.
Evolution is generally good if the treatment was initiated early.

Images from the web

Image Image

The Evolutionary Quirk That Made Vitamin B12 Part of Our Diet Aug 2018 Dixcover Magazine

B12 made in the human gut further down than it can be absorbed

Created by admin. Last Modification: Friday August 17, 2018 08:37:15 UTC by admin. (Version 24)

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10105 B-12 infographic.jpg admin 03 Jul, 2018 21:27 97.94 Kb 81
10104 B12 symptoms.jpg admin 03 Jul, 2018 21:26 44.50 Kb 76
9547 B12 genes.pdf PDF 2018 admin 19 Mar, 2018 13:05 1.07 Mb 73
9470 B12 warning signs.jpg admin 09 Mar, 2018 00:27 52.59 Kb 563
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