Amer J Perinatol : DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1262505
Donna D. Johnson1, Carol L. Wagner2, Thomas C. Hulsey3, Rebecca B. McNeil4, Myla Ebeling3, Bruce W. Hollis2
1 Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina
2 Division of Pediatric Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Research Institution, Charleston, South Carolina
3 Division of Pediatric Epidemiology, Department of Pediatrics, Rutledge Tower, Charleston, South Carolina
4 Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida
The objective was to determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency in African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian pregnant women. Blood samples were taken from 154 African-American, 194 Hispanic, and 146 Caucasian women at <14 weeks of gestation; 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The mean 25(OH)D levels in African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian pregnant women were 15.5 ± 7.2 (standard deviation), 24.1 ± 8.7, 29.0 ± 8.5 ng/mL, respectively.
Ninety-seven percent of African-Americans, 81% of Hispanics, and 67% of Caucasians were deficient (25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL or <50 nmol/L) or insufficient (25(OH)D levels ?20 ng/mL or <32 ng/mL or ?50 nmol/L or <80 nmol/L). Of these pregnant women, 82% had vitamin D levels <32 ng/mL (<80 ng/mL). In logistic regression models, race was the most important risk factor for vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. African-American women and Hispanic women were more likely to have vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than Caucasian women. Furthermore, primigravid women were more at risk for vitamin D insufficiency. This study demonstrates widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant females living at a southern latitude. African-Americans are at greatest risk.